Jose de la Mar
History of Peru
Presidents of Peru
People of the Peruvian War of Independence
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Jose de la Mar was a South American military leader.
He was born in Cuenca, Ecuador. He spent his early childhood in Spain, where he started his military career. In 1815, Ferdinand VII promoted him to Brigadier, awarded him the Saint Hermenegildo's Cross and appointed him Sub-Inspector of the Viceroyalty of Peru, with the title of Governor of Callao. He arrived at the city in 1816. In 1819, he was promoted to Field Marshal.
The War of Independence (18211827): Early actions
During the early days of the Independence War, he joined forces with the Royalists, taking care of the Real Felipe Fortress, in the main port of the Viceroyalty, Callao. Viceroy Jose de la Serna abandoned the capital on June 6, 1821, leaving him with explicit orders to resist and wait for reinforcements. He successfully stopped all attempts to capture the fort for nearly 4 months, until the arrival of General Jose Canterac and a powerful division sent by Viceroy de la Serna gave him the orders to surrender the fort due to the lack of supplies and troops. On September 19, the garrison surrendered, in the Baquijano Capitulation.
After this incident, he joined forces with the rebel cause. Jose de San Martin awarded him with the title of "Division General", a title he accepted reluctantly.
He was removed from the presidency of Peru by a coup d'etat led by General Agustin Gamarra and died in forced exile in Costa Rica.
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