Manco Inca Yupanqui
Manco Inca Yupanqui (15161544) (Manqu Inka Yupanki in Quechua) was one of the Incas of Vilcabamba. He was also known as "Manco II" and "Manco Capac II" ("Manqu Qhapaq II"). Born in 1516, he was one of the sons of Huayna Capac and came from a lower class of the nobility.
Tupac Huallpa, a puppet ruler crowned by conquistador Francisco Pizarro, died in 1533. Manco Inca then approached Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro in Cajamarca to negotiate a pact, to rule the Inca peoples and Peru since all of the royal nobles were dead. The conquistadors agreed, and in 1534 Manco was crowned the ruler of the Inca in Cuzco by Francisco Pizarro, and allowed to rule his people. He did not realize that he too was being used by Pizarro as a puppet ruler for the Spanish conquistadors, who planned to conquer his country and its people.
At first, Manco cooperated with the Spanish, befriending them and offering them gold treasures and women as gifts. However, when Pizarro and de Almagro left Cuzco to explore the northern and southern parts of Peru, he left his younger brothers Gonzalo Pizarro, Juan Pizarro and Hernando Pizarro as garrisons in the city of Cuzco. The Pizarro brothers so mistreated Manco Inca that he ultimately rebelled. Under the pretense of performing religious ceremonies in the nearby Yucay valley, Manco was able to escape from Cuzco. In an effort to regain his status, Manco gathered an army of 40,000 Inca warriors. Attempting to take advantage of a disagreement between Diego de Almagro and Francisco Pizarro, he marched on the city of Cuzco in 1536 in an attempt to throw the Spaniards out. Although it lasted ten months, the siege was ultimately unsuccessful even though Manco's forces were able to reclaim the city for a few days. Many of Manco Inca's warriors succumbed to smallpox and died (see second battle of Cuzco).
From 15361537, Manco attempted to drive the Spanish invaders out of Peru for good with an army of 30,000 Inca warriors and attacked the fort of Lima, where Francisco Pizarro was residing. There they met 300 Spanish soldiers and over 20,000 renegade warriors from the Empire, and once again were defeated. The surviving armies later retreated to the nearby fortress of Ollantaytambo, from which they had launched several successful attacks against the Spaniards and the Inca renegades, defeating them in the battle of Ollantaytambo. But Manco's position at Ollantaytambo was vulnerable due to lack of food because the Inca warriors were actually the same that used to cultivate the fields. The Spanish knew his location, and the region was one day's ride from Cuzco.
Abandoning Ollantaytambo (and effectively giving up the highlands of the empire), Manco Inca retreated to Vitcos and finally to the remote jungles of Vilcabamba, which became the capital of the empire until the death of Tupaq Amaru in 1572. The Spanish crowned his younger half brother Paullu Inca as puppet Sapa Inca after his retreat. The Spanish succeeded in capturing Manco's sister-wife, Cura Ocllo, and had her brutally murdered in 1539. After many guerrilla battles in the mountainous regions of Vilcabamba, Manco was murdered in 1544 by supporters of Diego de Almagro who wanted Manco dead, despite his having granted refuge to them. He was succeeded by his son Sayri Tupaq.
Manco Inca had several sons, including Sayri Tupaq, Titu Cusi and Tupaq Amaru.
Spanish conquest of Peru
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