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Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina

The Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina was signed into agreement at the Vatican on 29 November 1984.

It was ratified

on 30 December 1984 by the Argentine Chamber of Deputies

on 15 March 1985 by the Argentine National Congress

on 16 March 1985 by the Interim representant of the President of Argentina, who was abroad

on 11 April 1985 by the Military Government Junta as Legislature

On 12 April 1985 it was signed by Augusto Pinochet and on 2 May 1985 the Foreign Ministers of both countries exchanged original documents.

Due to the timing, the treaty is variously known as the 1984 Treaty or the 1985 Treaty.

The treaty contains a preamble, a maritime border definition, a comprehensive body of legislation on solving disputes, ship navigation rights and an exact definition of the border through the Straits of Magellan.

Chile and Argentina, though never at war with each other, have named some of their border treaties as "peace treaties".

The 1984 treaty was succeeded by the Maipu Treaty of Integration and Cooperation ( Tratado de Maipu de Integracion y Cooperacion ) signed on October 30, 2009

The Preamble

The treaty recognizes the Boundary Treaty of 1881 and its supplementary and declaratory instruments as the unshakeable foundation of relations between Chile and Argentina and defines the border ''from the end of the existing boundary in the Beagle Channel, i.e., the point fixed by the coordinates 5507.3' South latitude and 6625.0'West longitude''. That is, Argentina recognizes the borderline determined by the Beagle Channel Arbitration in 1977 , which it had earlier rejected. Hence, there is no mention of Picton, Nueva, Lennox and other islands. The Treaty calls its content a "Transaction".

Excepting articles 1 to 6, which define a comprehensive body of legislation regarding dispute resolution, the other provisions shall not affect in any way, nor may they be interpreted in any way, that can affect, directly or indirectly, the sovereignty, rights, juridical positions of the Parties, or the boundaries in Antarctica or in its adjacent maritime areas, including the seabed and subsoil.

The maritime border

The international border is the line ABCDEF. Westward are Chilean waters, eastward are Argentine waters.

Both countries recognized its baselines. . From the Cape Horn Meridian to the east end of the Isla de los Estados both countries reduced their internal waters to 3 nautical miles only in their mutual relations.

The line ABCDEF gives most of the exclusive economic zone of the islands (eastwards of Cape Horn) previously in dispute to Argentina. On the map, the gray line is approximately equidistant between the shores of Chile and Argentina. Such an equidistant line is normally how maritime borders are drawn between two countries, though this approach is not compulsory.

Navigation rights

Vessels of all nations in traffic between the Straits of Magellan and Argentine ports in the Beagle Channel, and vice versa, enjoy navigation facilities exclusively along the following route through Chilean internal waters: Magdalena Channel, Canal Cockburn, Paso Brecknock or Canal Occasion, Canal Ballenero, Canal O'Brien, Paso Timbales, northwest arm of the Beagle Channel and the Beagle Channel as far as the meridian 6836'38.5" West longitude and vice versa. The passage shall be navigated with a Chilean pilot and the Chilean Authority shall be informed at least 48 hours in advance of the date on which the vessel will begin passage.

For maritime traffic between Argentine ports in the Beagle Channel and the Argentine Exclusive Economic Zone (or Antarctic), and vice versa, Argentine vessels shall enjoy navigation facilities for the passage through Chilean internal waters exclusively via the following route: Paso Picton and Paso Richmond, then following from a point fixed by the coordinates 55'21.0' South latitude and 66*41.0" West longitude, the general direction of the arc between true 090' and 180', emerging in the Chilean territorial sea; or crossing the Chilean territorial sea in the general direction of the arc between true 270' and 000', and continuing through Paso Richmond and Paso Picton. The passage may be effected without a Chilean pilot and without notice.

For maritime traffic to and from the north through the Estrecho de Le Maire, Chilean vessels shall enjoy navigation facilities for the passage of that strait, without an Argentine pilot and without notice.

The Straits of Magellan

The Straits of Magellan belong, since the Treaty of 1881, to Chile, The Straits are a demilitarized zone and free for navigation for vessels of all countries.

New in respect thereof is that the Argentine Republic undertakes to maintain, at any time and in whatever circumstances, the right of ships of all flags to navigate expeditiously and without obstacles through its jurisdictional waters to and from the Straits of Magellan.

The Parties give mutual recognition to the baselines which they have traced in their respective territories. That is, regarding the Straits of Magellan, Argentina recognizes that the Straits of Magellan have no delta at the western end and that the Channels Abra, Magdalena, Cockburn and others are Chilean internal waters as defined by the Chilean baselines and that they are not free for navigation.

The parties agree that at the eastern end of the Straits of Magellan, defined by Punta Dungeness in the north and Cabo del Espiritu Santo in the south, the boundary between their respective sovereignties shall be the straight line joining the "Dungeness Marker (Former Beacon)", located at the very tip of the said geographical feature, and "Marker I on Cabo del Espiritu Santo" in Tierra del Fuego. The sovereignty of Chile and Argentina over the sea, seabed and subsoil shall extend, respectively, to the east and west of this boundary. This commitment ends any Chilean projection over the Atlantic and any Argentine pretension to coregulate traffic in the Straits of Magellan.

Dispute resolution

The parties reiterate solemnly their commitment to preserve, strengthen and develop their unchanging ties of perpetual friendship and to refrain from resorting directly or indirectly to any form of threat or use of force and from adopting any other measures which may disturb the peace in any sector of their mutual relations.

They create a Conciliation Commission and, if fails, eventually a Arbitral Tribunal. The decision of the tribunal shall be binding on the Parties, final and unappealable. Its implementation shall be entrusted to the honour of the nations signing the Treaty of Peace and Friendship.

See also

Falklands War

Argentina-Chile relations

Foreign relations of Argentina

Foreign relations of Chile


Beagle Channel Arbitration between the Republic of Argentina and the Republic of Chile, Report and Decision of the Court of Arbitration

Mark Laudy: The Vatican Mediation of the Beagle Channel Dispute: Crisis Intervention and Forum Building in Words Over War of Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict.

Alejandro Luis Corbacho: Predicting the Probability of War During Brinkmanship Crises: The Beagle and the Malvinas Conflicts, Universidad del CEMA, Argentina, Documento de Trabajo No. 244, September 2003, Spanish Language

Karin Oellers-Frahm: Der Schiedsspruch in der Beagle-Kanal-Streitigkeit, Berichte und Urkunden: Max-Planck-Institut fur auslandisches offentliches Recht und Volkerrecht, German Language

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de Chile: Relaciones Chileno-Argentinas, La controversia del Beagle. Genf 1979, English and Spanish Language

Andrea Wagner: Der argentinisch-chilenische Konflikt um den Beagle-Kanal. Ein Beitrag zu den Methoden friedlicher Streiterledigung. Verlag Peter Lang, Frankfurt a.M. 1992, ISBN 3-631-43590-8, German Language

Karl Hernekamp: Der argentinisch-chilenisch Grenzstreit am Beagle-Kanal. Institut fur Iberoamerika-Kunde, Hamburg 1980, German Language

Andres Cisneros y Carlos Escude, "Historia general de las Relaciones Exteriores de la Republica Argentina", Las relaciones con Chile, Cema, Argentina, Buenos Aires. Spanish Language

Annegret I. Haffa: Beagle-Konflikt und Falkland (Malwinen)-Krieg. Zur Aussenpolitik der Argentinischen Militarregierung 1976-1983. Weltforum Verlag, Munchen/Koln/London 1987, ISBN 3-8039-0348-3, German Language

Isaac F. Rojas und Arturo Medrano: Argentina en el Atlantico Chile en el Pacifico. Editorial Nemont, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1979, in spanischer Sprache.

Isaac F. Rojas, La Argentina en el Beagle y Atlantico sur 1. Parte. Editorial Diagraf, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Spanish Language

Carlos Escude und Andres Cisneros: Historia general de las relaciones exteriores de la Republica Argentina , in spanischer Sprache.

Fabio Vio Valdivieso: La mediacion de su S.S. el Papa Juan Pablo II, Editorial Aconcagua, Santiago de Chile, 1984, Spanish Language

Alberto Marin Madrid: El arbitraje del Beagle y la actitud Argentina. 1984, Editorial Moises Garrido Urrea, id = A-1374-84 XIII, Spanisch Language

Luis Alberto Romero, Argentina in the twentieth Century. Pennsylvania State University Press, translated by James P. Brennan, 1994, ISBN 0-271-02191-8

Divisionsgeneral (a.D.) Juan E. Gugliamelli: Cuestion del Beagle. Negociacion directa o dialogo de armas , in Spanish Language. (Book compiled from articles of Argentine Magazin "Estrategia", Buenos Aires Nr:49/50, enero-febrero 1978, erschienen sind.

General Martin Antonio Balza und Mariano Grondona: Dejo Constancia: memorias de un general argentino. Editorial Planeta, Buenos Aires 2001, ISBN 9504908136, Spanish Language

Francisco Bulnes Serrano und Patricia Arancibia Clavel: La Escuadra En Accion. Chile, Editorial Grijalbo, 2004, ISBN 9562582116, Spanish Language

External links

Chilean Telecast of Television Nacional de Chile "Informe Especial", Theme El ano que vivimos en peligro, , Spanish Language

Argentine Telecast of History Channel: Operativo Soberania YouTube, Spanish Language

Special edition of El Mercurio, Santiago de Chile, 2 September 2005, Spanish Language. There are Interviews with contemporary witness like Ernesto Videla, Jaime Del Valle, Helmut Brunner, Marcelo Delpech und Luciano Benjamin Menendez. Spanish Language.

Interview with the Chief Commander of the Argentine Army Martin Balza in El Mercurio de Santiago de Chile, 2 September 2005, Spanish Language

Interview with Sergio Onofre Jarpa, Chile's Ambassador in Argentina 1978 to 1982 in La Tercera, Santiago, Chile, 17 March 2002, Spanish Language

Interview with Argentine General Luciano Benjamin Menendez, Commandant of the III Army Corps in El Mercurio de Santiago de Chile, (from the Argentine Magazine "Somos"), Spanish Language

Interview with Pio Laghi, Nuntius in Argentina, 1978, in Clarin, Buenos Aires, 20 December 1998. Spanish Language

Interview with the Ambassador of the United States of America in Argentina, Raul Hector Castro, in Clarin Buenos Aires, 20 December 1998, Spanish Language

Interview with the former Chief of the "Secretaria General del Ejercito" (a Think-Tank of the Argentine Army), General Reynaldo Bignone, President of Argentina after the Falkland War, in Clarin, Buenos Aires, 20 December 1998, Spanish Language

Article Cartas desde el Abismo, Clarin, Buenos Aires, 20 December 1998, Spanish Language

Article El belicismo de los dictadores Clarin, Buenos Aires, 20 December 1998, Spanish Language

Article Beagle: historia secreta de la guerra que no fue La Nacion, Buenos Aires, 12 August 1996, Spanish Language

Article Historia de la santa mediacion en Clarin, Buenos Aires, 20 December 1998, Spanish Language

Chile-Argentina Relations, Spanish Language

Toma de decisiones politicas y la influencia de los discursos oficialistas durante el Connflicto del Beagle: Chile - Argentina 1977-1979, Spanish Language

Text of the Tratado de Paz y Amistad de 1984, Direccion de Fronteras y Limites de Chile, Spanish Language

Text of the Peace and Friendship Treaty of 1984, Copy to the United Nations, English Language

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