.

MundoAndino Home : Chile Guide at Mundo Andino

Toqui


Toqui (Mapudungun for axe or axe-bearer) is a title conferred by the Mapuche (an indigenous Chilean people) to those who are chosen as their leader during times of war. The toqui is chosen in an assembly or parliament (coyag), of the chiefs (loncos) of the various clans (Rehues) or confederation of clans (Aillarehues), allied during the war in question. The Toqui could command strict obedience of all the warriors and their loncos during the war, organize them in units and appoint leaders over them. This command would continue until toqui was killed, deposed in another parliament , or upon completion of the war for which he was chosen.

Some of the more famous Toqui in the Arauco War with the Spanish introduced tactical innovations; for instance, Lautaro introduced infantry tactics to defeat horsemen. Lemucaguin was the first Toqui to use firearms and artillery in battle. Nongoniel was the first Toqui to use cavalry with the Mapuche army. Cadeguala was the first to successfully use Mapuche cavarly to defeat Spanish cavalry in battle. Anganamon was the first to mount his infantry to keep up with his fast moving cavalry. Lientur pioneered the tactic of numerous and rapid malons into Spanish territory.

List of Mapuche Toquis

The following Mapuche leaders were at some time named as toquisJose Ignacio Victor Eyzaguirre, Historia eclesiastica: Politica y literaria de Chile, IMPRENTA DEL COMERCIO, VALPARAISO, June 1830. List of Toquis, pg. 162-163, 498-500.:

MalloqueteJeronimo de Vivar, Cronica y relacion copiosa y verdadera de los reinos de Chile, Capitulo LXVI 1546

AinavilloVivar, Cronica..., Cap. XCV,XCVII, AynabilloPedro Marino de Lobera, Cronica del Reino de Chile., Cap. XXXI or Aillavilu 1550

Lincoyan 1551-1553

Caupolican 1553-1558

* Lautaro Vice Toqui 1553-1557

Turcupichun Diego de Rosales, Historia general de el Reino de Chile, Flandes Indiano, Tomo II, CAPITULO XXI 1557-1558

Lemucaguin Rosales, Historia general ..., Tomo II, CAPITULO XXI or Caupolican the younger Juan Ignacio Molina, The Geographical, Natural, and Civil History of Chili, Vol II, Book III, Chap. VIII 1558

IllangulienAlonso de Gongora Marmolejo, Historia de Todas las Cosas que han Acaecido en el Reino de Chile y de los que lo han gobernado (1536-1575), Capitulo XLVI, Quiromanite,, Queupulien Rosales, Historia General del Reino de Chile, Flandes Indiano, Tomo II, Cap. XXX or AntiguenuMolina, The Geographical, Natural, and Civil History of Chili, Volume II, Book IV, Chap. 1 1559-1564

* Millalelmo or Millarelmo Rosales, Historia general de el Reyno de Chile, Flandes Indiano, Tomo II or AntuneculMolina, The Geographical, Natural, and Civil History of Chili, pg. 207-208 1562-1570

* Loble or Lig-lemu Vicente Carvallo y Goyeneche, Descripcion historico-jeografica del Reino de Chile, TOMO I; Coleccion de historiadores de Chile, Tomo VIII, IMPRENTA DE LA LIBRERIA DEL MERCURIO de A. y M. Echeverria, Morando Num. 38., Santiago,1878, Tomo I Cap. LI, or Lillemu Molina, The Geographical, Natural, and Civil History of Chili, pg. 211 Vice Toqui 1563-1565

Paillataru 1564-1574

* Llanganabal 1569

PainenamcuAccording to Rosales, Historia..., Tomo II, Capitulo LI, pg. 221. or Paynenancu Carvallo,Descripcion Historico..., originally Alonso DiazLobera calls him Diego Diaz, Cronica..., Libro tercero, Parte tercera, Capitulo XXXII; Rosales and Carvallo call him Alonso Diaz 1574-1584

Cayancaru or CayeucuraDiego de Rosales, Historia..., Tomo II, Capitulo LI 1584

Nongoniel or MangolienRosales, Historia ... , Tomo II, CAPITULO LII 1585

Cadeguala or CadigualaLobera, Cronica ..., Cap. XXXV 1585-1586

Guanoalca or Huenualca Claudio Gay, Historia fisica y politica de Chile Tomo II, Capitulo XIII 1586-1590

Quintuguenu 1591

Paillaeco 1592

Paillamachu 1592-1603

* Pelantaro Vice Toqui

* Millacolquin Vice Toqui

Huenecura or HuenencuraGay, Historia ... , Tomo II, Cap. XXXII. 1604-1610

Aillavilu, Aillavilu IIJose Ignacio Victor Eyzaguirre, Historia eclesiastica: Politica y literaria de Chile, Impr. del Comercio, Valpraiso, 1850. pg. 498., Aillavilu SegundoGomez De Vidaurre, Coleccion de historiadores de Chile y documentos relativos a la historia nacional, Tomo 15, HISTORIA GEOGRAFICA, NATURAL Y CIVIL DEL REINO DE CHILE, TOMO II CON UNA INTRODUCCION BIOGRAFICA Y NOTAS POR J. T. MEDINA, IMPRENTA ERCILLA, SANTIAGO DE CHILE, 1889 1610-1612

AnganamonRosales, Historia general ..., Tomo II', AncanamonFrancisco Nunez de Pineda y Bascunan, El Cautiverio Feliz; Molina, The Geographical, Natural, and Civil History of Chili or AncanamunCarvallo, Descripcion historico..., TOMO I; Coleccion de historiadores de Chile, Tomo VIII, IMPRENTA DE LA LIBRERIA DEL MERCURIO de A. y M. Echeverria, Morando Num. 38., Santiago,18781612-1613

Loncothegua 1613-1620

Lientur 1621-1625

* Levipillan Vice Toqui

Butapichon or Butapichun 1625-1631

Quepuantu or Quempuante1631-1632

Butapichon or Butapichun1632-1634

Huenucalquin 1634-1635

Curanteo 1635

Curimilla 1635-1639

Lincopinchon 1640-1641

Clentaru 1655

Mestizo Alejo 1656-1661 @

Misqui 1661-1663

Colicheuque 1663

Udalevi 1664-1665

* Calbunancu vice toqui 1664-1665 Gay, Historia fisica y politica de Chile, Tomo III, CAPITULO XXVII

Ayllicuriche or Huaillacuriche Pedro de Cordoba y Figueroa, HISTORIA DE CHILE (1492-1717) 1672-1673

Millalpal Pedro de Cordoba y Figueroa , HISTORIA DE CHILE 1492-1717, Coleccion de historiadores de Chile Libro 7 Cap. 14 Vicente Carvallo Goyeneche, Descripcion Historico Geografia del Reino de Chile, Tomo II, Primera parte, Capitulo LXIV or Millapan'' 1692-1694

Vilumilla 1722-1726

Curinancu 1766-1774

Killed in battle or executed for rebellion or @ assassinated.

Sources

Juan Ignatius Molina, The Geographical, Natural, and Civil History of Chili, Vol II., Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, London, 1809

Jose Ignacio Victor Eyzaguirre, Historia eclesiastica: Politica y literaria de Chile, IMPRENTA DEL COMERCIO, VALPARAISO, June 1830 List of Toquis, pg. 162-163, 498-500.

Didn't find what you were looking for.
Need more information for your travel research or homework?
Ask your questions at the forum about History of Chile or help others to find answers.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Toqui


Disclaimer - Privacy Policy - 2009