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Coronel is a Chilean city, located in the Concepcion Province, VIII Region del Biobio.
It is the head of Departamento de Lautaro, then called Departamento de Coronel. The total area of the city is 279 km and their population reach about 95,528 people(2002 census); almost the totality of the population is urban.
The territory within the city limits:
North: with San Pedro de la Paz and Hualqui;
South: with Lota and Santa Juana;
East: with Hualqui; and
West: with the Pacific Ocean.
The Santa Maria Island also forms part of the city, which is represented there by a municipal delegate.
The city of Coronel is located in a sandy platform that goes from the mouth of the Biobio river to the Arauco Gulf bay, a muddy landscape, full of forests, typical of the region.
This forested and muddy landscape was what the first Spanish conquistadors and settlers found when arriving. It is characteristic all over the Provincia de Arauco. Muddy big plains enclosed by high mountains. The vegetation and forests covered most part of the area until very close to the coast.
Like all territory in Bio-Bio to the South, this zone was populated by the "Mapuches". The Spaniards called Arauco to all the coastal territory to the South of the mentioned river and therefore its people araucanos.
The indigenous population of the Coronel bay was located into a war zone called Butanmapu de la costa. From the descriptions made by the Spaniards, it is probable that before the Spaniards colonization, half of the mapuche population lived in this region.
The city of Lota , was an early coal mining settlement in the area. The mine was composed of "Chiflones" 1, 2, 3, 4, Pique Santa Maria, and Pique Arenas Blancas,this was the last mine closed, because of a grisu gas explosion where 21 miners died . This mine was the deepest in Sudamerica with 1000 meters.
The weather of Coronel is Templated Mediterranean, of the kind of the Coast Mountain Rage with a moderated amplitude. The Coronel situation in the occidental vertient of the coast, makes to receive in front the winds of W and NW ligated to the bad weather conditions that contributed to reforce the precipitations. Their neighbour with the Pacific is involved in the annual variations of the temperature. The middle T in summer is 17 C and in winter 8 C.
In 2007, Coronel lived one of the winters colder than 40 years (infraregister). A cold wave coming from the South Pole left down temperatures all the winter specially in July and August, where the thermometers marked about -6 C, but in 2006 the coldest temperature was 5 C. The coldest day was in August 15 at 11.47 A.M., it was registrated -5.9 C
The rain disminuyed considerably, Coronel registered a rate of 75 cm falls during 2007, in 2006 falls 145 cm over the city, so, 70 cm of rain water among both years.
The 2008 summer was very hot, the max registered in February 9 at 17.00, was 31 C. However, the strongest winds up to 60 km/h provenients from the S made improvise a bit the hot during summer.
The humidity between April-October doesn't downs from the 75% present in the air, what helps to get down the real feel, that without considering the cold winds from the north or the south.
For the 2008 winter it hopes temperatures to -10 C and a down of 20% of rain related to 2007. But the rain accumulated to June superated to the last year and left a 70% profit respecting to June 2007, from 31.2 cm it accumulated to June 20, 2008 47.3 cm.
The climate for this winter is not certain, it could be more rainy or more dry. It could be coldly, hot or with normal temperatures.
There are other places in Chile with similar names.
FallingRain Map - elevation = 83m (Red dots are railways)
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Coronel, Chile