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Ancud is a city in southern Chile located in the northernmost part of the island and province of Chiloe, in Los Lagos Region (Chile's eleventh region from north to south).
Geography and Demography
The population of the municipality comuna of Ancud was 39,946 according to the 2002 INE Census while that of the city proper amounted to 27,292 people. Two thirds of the population of the comuna live in urban centers while one third live in rural areas. The comuna has a surface of 1,752 km and a population density of 22,8 and is bordered on the north, west and northeast by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Quemchi, and on the south by Dalcahue.
Between 1767 and 1982, Ancud was the capital of the province of Chiloe and in 1840 became the see of a Catholic diocese.
Ancud was founded on August 20, 1767 during the reign of Charles III of Spain. The viceroy of Peru, Manuel de Amat y Juniet, was commanded to fortify the north end of the island of Chiloe; he instructed the Brigadier Don Carlos de Beranger y Renaud to raise a fort on the north-western tip of the island. The fort was built to defend navigation around the southern tip of South America from English encroachment.
Beranger, who was named governor of Chiloe, founded the Villa y Fuerte Real de San Carlos de Chiloe in 1768. He moved the inhabitants of Chacao to the new settlement and from that moment the new town became the seat of the governor and the main port of the island. Fortifications on the bay, as well as artillery batteries, were constructed, as well as the castle of San Miguel de Agui. From 1784 the villa of San Carlos was the seat of the Intendancy of Chiloe, erected in that year, which was subject to the Viceroyalty of Peru. The first Intendant was Francisco Hurtado del Pino.
Ancud remained loyal to the Spanish crown after Chile declared independence, and an expedition under Antonio Pareja departed from the Fuerte Real de San Carlos de Chiloe in 1813, which led to the Disaster of Rancagua, a victory for the royalists. Forces from Chiloe entered Santiago de Chile on October 5, 1814.
Chiloe, under the royal governor Antonio de Quintanilla continued to remain loyal to Spain. Rge Fuerte Real de San Carlos was defended against the attack led by Lord Cochrane, who was defeated while attempting to assault the castle of San Miguel de Agui in 1820. The expedition led by Ramon Freire against the Chiloe royalists would also be defeated at the Battle of Mocopulli . In 1826, Chilean forces would finally defeat the Chiloe resistance at Pudeto and Bellavista . The Treaty of Tantauco would confirm the annexation of Chiloe to the republic of Chile.
With Chiloe annexed to the Republic of Chile, administration was placed in the hands of Colonel Jose Santiago de Aldunate (1826), who was arrested in the Villa de San Carlos de Chiloe by sergeant-major Manuel Fuentes, who organized an assembly on May 12, 1826 that declared the independence of Chiloe. This rebellion was suppressed by July 19, 1826.
On June 28, 1834, Charles Darwin visited the town during the Second voyage of HMS Beagle.
On July 4, 1834, the name of the town was changed from San Carlos de Chiloe to Ancud, and was officially named a city as well as the capital of the province of Chiloe.
On July 1 1840, Pope Gregory XVI, in his papal bull Ubi primum, created the diocese of San Carlos de Ancud. The episcopal seat was located at Ancud. The first bishop was Justo Donoso Vivanco, a Dominican and an important expert in canon law, afterwards bishop of La Serena and minister of Justice, Worship, and Public Education. On April 13, 1845, the seminary known as the Seminario Conciliar de Ancud was founded in the city during his episcopate. The school known as the "Liceo de Ancud" was founded on October 11, 1868. Nuns of the Congregation of the Immaculate Conception settled in the city on November 3, 1874.
During the 19th century, the city of Ancud, with its intense maritime commercial activity, became an important center for industry and commerce, but it suffered a decline as a result of the building of the Panama Canal. In the 20th century, an important settlement near the city was founded by German immigrants, whose activities led to the growth of commerce, agriculture, livestock, and education in the city. In 1912, however, Ancud suffered from competition with Puerto Montt, which was newly linked by rail with the rest of the country. This led to a slow economic decline. Ancud lost its status as capital of the province of Chiloe in 1982, but still retains a court of law for the province (Juzgado de capital de provincia).
Sites of Interest
Fort San Antonio is located to 800 meters of the seat of arms by Baquedano street until San Antonio.
Powder magazine. Located to 700 meters of the Seat of arms in the direction of Heavy Sand.
Regional museum of Ancud. Located in front of the Seat of Arms of the city.
Quetalmahue is located to 14 km of Ancud.
Pinguineras de Punihuil. 25 km to the southwest of Ancud are located about.
Light Crown is located to 28 km to the northwest of the city of Ancud, in the sector of Guapilacuy.
Chepu river is located to about 30 km of Ancud and runs by the valley of the same name.
Fort Ahui is located in the peninsula of Lacuy to 39 km of Ancud.
Sanctuary of the Birds of Ancud is located in the Caulin Bay
Ancud belongs to the 58th Electoral District n and 17 Senatorial Circumscription (the South Lakes).
It is represented in the House of Representatives of the National Congress by the deputies Claudius Alvarado of the UDI and Gabriel Ascencio of the PDC. It is also represented in the Senate by senators Camilo Escalona of the PS and Carlos Kuschel of RN.
Churches of Chiloe
Islotes de Punihuil Natural Monument
Satellite view of the Chiloe archipielago (Google maps)
Satellite view of Ancud (Google maps)
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Ancud