Tumbes is a city in northwestern Peru, on the banks of the Tumbes River. It is the capital of the Tumbes Region, as well as of Tumbes Province and Tumbes District.
Located near the border with Ecuador, Tumbes has 94,702 inhabitants.
It is served by the Cap. FAP. Pedro Canga Rodriguez Airport
Tumbes has its origins back in pre-Inca times when it was inhabited by a cultural group of natives called Tumpis. At its peak, its population is estimated to have reached 178,000. After 1400, Inca Pachacutec ruled over Tumbes and the territory became an important political stronghold during the Inca Empire. Later Inca emperor Huayna Capac expanded Tumbes by ordering the construction of roads, houses and palaces.
Tumbes was first discovered by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro during the start of the Spanish conquest of Peru in 1528. Pizarro made a second expedition in 1532 during which he encountered resistance from the curaca (chieftain) Chilimaza in what became known as the Battle of the Manglares. Pizarro was eventually successful and is said to have planted a cross in the conquered territory as a sign of Spanish conquest during the time. Felipillo and Yacane, the first South American interpreters who later aided Pizarro and his followers during the conquest of Peru, were born in Tumbes.
During its colonial period, Tumbes was sparsely populated and formed a part of the Audiencia of Quito through an unmodified Cedula of 1563 and Cedula of 1740. When Tumbes declared its independence from Spain it opted to join Peru believing in the right of free determination of peoples. First, the Republic of the Gran Colombia challenged that right and then Ecuador claiming de jure rights through unmodified colonial Royal Decrees ( Real Cedulas ), but to no avail. The Protocol of Rio de Janerio signed in 1942 with Ecuador legally confirmed Peru's previously de facto rights over Tumbes after a victorious war.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Tumbes (city)