Guitarrero Cave is located in the Callejon de Huaylas valley in Yungay Province, in the Ancash region of Peru. The cave stands 50 meters above Rio Santa and 2,580 meters above sea level.Weber, George. "Guitarrero cave ." Possible Relatives in the Americas. 11 July 2007 (retrieved 23 Feb 2010)
Guitarrero Cave has evidence of human use during 8000 BCE and possibly as early as 10,560 BCE.Lynch, Thomas F, R. Gillespie, John A. J. Gowlett, and R. E. M. Hedges. "Chronology of Guitarrero Cave, Peru." Science. August 1985 (retrieved 23 Feb 2010) A human's mandible and teeth found in the cave have been carbon dated to 10,610 BCE.
Above all that, there were series of Archaic period with campfires, dated between 10,500 years ago and 9,000 years ago. Wood, bone, antler, and fiber cordage, and other were artifacts that recovered from the level, as well as willow leaf, tanged, lanceolate, and concave base Ichuna/Arcata projectile points. A single grinding slab and a bone flesher were also recovered from this part of the area.
Levels were included in the Early and Middle Horizon occupations, cist tombs, and wall paintings between about the 1000 BCE1000 CE.
In 1960s, archeologists discovered artifacts in an extraordinary state of preservation at the site. Remarkably, textiles, wood and leather tools, and basketry have been preserved intact. Some of the evidence of early domesticated beans Phaseolus, chili, corn and other cultivars have been argued for Guitarrero.
Fiberwork founded in the cave dates back over ten-thousand years the earliest found in South America. The cave held utilitarian containers made by twisting, looping, and knotting plant fibers.
The people of Gutarrero Cave are possible ancestors of the Chavin culture.
Some of the earliest cultivated plants in South America have been found in the cave. They include:
Aji pepper (Capsicum baccatum): first appears at Guitarrero cave in 8,500 BCE
Oca (Oxalis tuberosa): first appears 8,5007,500 BCE
Aji (Capsicum chinense): first appears 8,0007,500 BCE
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): first appears 8,0007,500 BCE
Pallar bean (Phaseolus lunatus): first appears 8,0007,5000 BCE
Lucuma (Lucuma bifera): first appears 8,0005,500 BCE
Olluco (Ullucus tuberosus): first appears 6,000 BCE at the cave Tres Ventanas in Chile and next at Guitarrero cave 5,500 BCE.
Zapallo (Cucurbita sp.): first appears 7,000 BCE
Maize or corn (Zea mays): possibly first traces but not conclusively identified from 6,200 BCE. Maize has been identified in the Ayacucho Region of south central Peru as early as 4,400 and 3,100 BCE.
Stone-Miller, Rebecca. Art of the Andes: from Chavin to Inca. London: Thames and Hudson, 2002. ISBN 978-0-500-20363-7.
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