Southern Rockhopper Penguin
The Western Rockhopper Penguin, Eudyptes chrysocome, is a species of rockhopper penguin. It occurs in subantarctic waters of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans, as well as around the southern coasts of South America.
This is the smallest yellow-crested, black-and-white penguin in the genus Eudyptes. It reaches a length of 45-58 cm (18-23 in) and typically weighs 2-3.4 kg (4.4-7.5 lb), although there are records of exceptionally large rockhoppers weighing 5 kg . It has slate-grey upper parts and a straight, bright yellow eyebrow ending in long yellowish plumes projecting sideways behind a red eye.
Taxonomy and systematics
In the past, the three Rockhopper Penguin species were considered subspecies, but they are now considered full species. The subspecies recognized in the past were:
Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome, the Western Rockhopper Penguin or American Southern Rockhopper Penguin - breeds around the southern tip of South America
Eudyptes chrysocome filholi, the Eastern Rockhopper Penguin or Indopacific Southern Rockhopper Penguin - breeds on subantarctic islands of the Indian and western Pacific oceans
Eudyptes chrysocome moseleyi, the Northern Rockhopper Penguin breeds on islands of Tristan da Cunha as well as on Amsterdam and St Paul Islands.
The Northern Rockhopper Penguins lives in a different water mass than the Western Rockhopper Penguin and Eastern Rockhopper Penguin, separated by the Subtropical Front and they are genetically different. Therefore, northern birds are now separated as E. moseleyi.
The rockhopper penguins are closely related to the Macaroni Penguin (E. chrysolophus) and the Royal Penguin (E. schlegeli), which may just be a color morph of the Macaroni Penguin.
Interbreeding with the Macaroni Penguin has been reported at Heard and Marion Islands, with three hybrids recorded there by a 1987-88 Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition.
Distribution, ecology and status
Western Rockhopper Penguins have a global population of roughly 1 million pairs. About two-thirds of the global population belongs to E. c. chrysocome which breeds on the Falkland Islands and on islands off Argentina and southern Chile. These include most significantly Isla de los Estados, the Ildefonso Islands, the Diego Ramirez Islands and Isla Noir. E. c. filholi breeds on the Prince Edward Islands, the Crozet Islands, the Kerguelen Islands, Heard Island, Macquarie Island, Campbell Island, the Auckland Islands and the Antipodes Islands. Outside the breeding season, the birds can be found roaming the waters offshore their colonies.
These penguins feed on krill, squid, octopus, lantern fish, molluscs, plankton, cuttlefish, and mainly crustaceans.
A rockhopper penguin named "Rocky" in Bergen Aquarium in Norway, lived to 29 years 4 months. It died in October 2003. This stands as the age record for rockhopper penguins, and possibly it was the oldest penguin known.
The Western Rockhopper Penguin is classified as Vulnerable species by the IUCN. Its population has declined by about one-third in the last thirty years. However, the Northern Rockhopper's population is only a fraction of that of the Western Rockhopper Penguin, and consequently the status of the latter is unchanged by the taxonomic split.
Their common name refers to the fact that, unlike many other penguins which get around obstacles by sliding on their bellies or by awkward climbing using their flipper-like wings as aid, Rockhoppers will try to jump over boulders and across cracks.
This behaviour is by no means unique to this species however - at least the other "crested" penguins of the genus Eudyptes hop around rocks too. But the Rockhopper's congeners occur on remote islands in the New Zealand region, whereas the rockhopper penguins are found in places that were visited by explorers and whalers since the Early Modern era. Hence, it is this particular species in which this behavior was first noted.
Their breeding colonies are located from sea-level to cliff-tops and sometimes inland. Their breeding season starts in September and ends in November. Two eggs are laid but only one is usually incubated. Incubation lasts 35 days and their chicks are brooded for 26 days.
Rockhoppers in popular culture
Rockhopper penguins are the most familiar of the crested penguins to the general public. Their breeding colonies, namely those around South America, today attract many tourists who enjoy watching the birds' antics. Historically, the same islands were popular stopover and replenishing sites for whalers and other seafarers since at least the early 18th century. It is hardly surprising that almost all crested penguins depicted in movies, books and so on are ultimately based on Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome.
In film and video
Several of the characters in the film ''Surf's Up, are Rockhoppers.
Rocko, voiced by James Belushi in the Don Bluth film The Pebble and the Penguin, is a Rockhopper.
Lovelace, voiced by Robin Williams in the 2006 film Happy Feetis a Rockhopper
Fidgel from the Big Idea Productions video series 3-2-1 Penguins!is a Rockhopper.A Rockhopper, voiced by Carlos Mencia, is in the Bob Saget film parody Farce of the Penguins.
In computer and video games
The characters Ivan and Tobi from the Konami video game Sexy Parodiusare actually a pair of Rockhoppers.
Hopper is the name of a Rockhopper Penguin in the Nintendo video game series Animal Crossing.
Rockhopper is also the name of a pirate penguin in the MMOG Club Penguin.
The Rockhopper penguin is an adoptable animal in the 2006 PC game, [[Zoo Tycoon 2: Marine Mania]]''. A fictional joke version of it, the "Killer Penguin", appears as a lab accident in the game's sequel, [[Zoo Tycoon 2: Extinct Animals]]. It is depicted as able to kill any animal, including dinosaurs.
In music and literature
The cover of the Fleetwood Mac album Penguin features a Rockhopper. The penguin subsequently became Fleetwood Mac's mascot.
Rockhopper IV is the name of a spaceship in Alastair Reynolds's 2005 science fiction novel, Pushing Ice. The ship's logo is a penguin, genus unspecified.
(2008a) Southern Rockhopper Penguin Species Factsheet. Retrieved 2008-MAY-27.
(2008b): [2008 IUCN Redlist status changes&93;. Retrieved 2008-MAY-23.
(2008): Guinness World Records 2008. Guinness Media, Inc. ISBN 1904994199
ARKive - images and movies of the rockhopper penguin, Eudyptes chrysocome
70South: Info on Rockhopper Penguins
Rockhopper Penguins from the International Penguin Conservation Web Site
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Southern Rockhopper Penguin