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Mount Hudson (locally known as Cerro Hudson) is a stratovolcano in southern Chile, and the site of one of the largest eruptions in the twentieth century. The mountain itself is covered by a glacier. There is a caldera at the summit from an ancient eruption; modern volcanic activity comes from inside the caldera. Mount Hudson is named after Francisco Hudson a 19th century Chilean Navy hydrographer.
Large eruptions around 4750 BCE and 1890 BCE are believed to have been of Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) 6; these are probably responsible for the large caldera. The 4750 BCE eruption may have wiped out many if not all groups of early man living in central Patagonia at that time, based on evidence from the Los Toldos archaeological site.Cardich, A. (1985) "Una fecha radiocarbonica mas de la cueva 3 de Los Toldos " Relaciones de la Sociedad Argentina de Antropologia, Nueva Serie 16: 269-275 Recently, the volcano has had moderate eruptions in 1891 and 1971 as well as a large eruption in 1991.
Before 1970, little was known about the mountain. Minor eruptive activity began in 1970 and melted parts of the glacier, raising river water levels and leading to the identification of the caldera. In August-September 1971, a moderate eruption (VEI 3) located in the northwest area of the caldera sent ash into the air and caused lahars from the melting of a large portion of the glacier. The lahars killed five people; many more were evacuated.
The eruption in August to October 1991 was a large plinian eruption with a VEI of 5, that ejected 4.3 km3 bulk volume (2.7 cubic km of dense rock equivalent material).Kratzmann, David, et al. (2009) "Compositional variations and magma mixing in the 1991 eruptions of Hudson volcano, Chile" Bulletin of Volcanology 71(4): pp. 419439, p.419, doi:10.1007/s00445-008-0234-x Parts of the glacier melted and ran down the mountain as mud flows (see glacier run). Due to the remoteness of the area, no humans were killed but hundreds of people were evacuated from the vicinity. Ash fell on Chile and Argentina as well as in the South Atlantic Ocean and on the Falkland Islands.Scasso, Roberto A.; Corbella, Hugo and Tiberi, Pedro (1994) "Sedimentological analysis of the tephra from the 1215 August 1991 eruption of Hudson volcano" Bulletin of volcanology 56(2): pp. 121132, doi:10.1007/BF00304107
In addition to the ash, a large amount of sulfur dioxide gas and aerosols were ejected in the eruption. These contributed to those already in the atmosphere from the even larger Mount Pinatubo eruption earlier in the year and helped cause a worldwide cooling effect over the following years. Ozone was also depleted, with the Antarctic ozone hole growing to its largest levels ever recorded in 1992 and 1993.
As a result of the Pinatubo eruption, the Hudson eruption received little attention at the time.
Mount Hudson at AGU
Mount Hudson at VolcanoWorld
Chile Volcanoes (USGS)
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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Mount Hudson