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Argentine air forces in the Falklands War
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This article describes the composition and actions of the Argentine air forces in the Falklands War . For an overview of the air forces of the United Kingdom, see British air services in the Falklands War.
As Argentina triggered the war it would be reasonable to think they were prepared, and had a plan on how to defend the islands. The military dictatorship that governed the country at the time regarded the seizure of the Falklands as a political act to obtain a diplomatic bargaining position, and not as an act of war. Consequently they were taken by surprise when the United Kingdom responded with a large-scale mobilization, and a task force to retake the islands.
The Argentine Air Force had never considered the possibility of waging a long-range naval air campaign against a major NATO power. It was not trained or equipped for such a mission. The FAA had only two tanker aircraft to serve the whole air force and navy, and its fighter-bomber Mirage IIIs and IAI Daggers were not equipped for aerial refuelling. The FAA's training, tactics and equipment were focused on a possible war against Chile, resulting from disputes such as the Beagle conflict.
The Chilean threat was a cause of great concern to the Argentina military during the war. The Chilean armed forces had deployed a significant force to Chile's common border with Argentina, and the FAA was forced to reinstate their retired F-86 Sabres to bolster Argentina's air defences. In Argentina's favour, Peru immediately offered its support to the Argentine cause, with the Peruvian Air Force even offering to fly combat missions. This was politely declined by the Argentine government. As the war progressed, Peru and Venezuela sent critical aircraft spare parts to Argentina, urgently needed by the FAA and the Brazilian Air Force leased two EMB111 Bandeirantes maritime patrol aircraft to the Argentine Navy.
By the best estimates, Argentina totaled about 240 planes when the war broke out. About half of those were posted in the interior and along the Chilean border
On paper, the 20 subsonic British Sea Harriers could easily have been wiped out by the more than hundred Argentine combat planes, including many supersonic jets. The reality was different. The long distances from their bases prevented them from using their top speed or they risked running out of fuel."the Mach 2 Mirage and Dagger which in low-level attack are extremely subsonic. ..while low-level attacks by the Argentine aircraft..there would not be a lot of fuel to spare, especially if afterburner was used." page 42 in Aviation Fact File - Harrier, 1984 Although, the Argentines had more aeroplanes than the British Task force, a good number of them were Pucara turboprops."The Argentine-built Pucara counter-insurgency aircraft proved its worth in numerous attacks on British land forces, and it was even used to attack shipping. About 75 Pucaras were in service at the start of the conflict." page 33 in Antony Preston:Sea Combat off the Falklands, 1982, Willow Books, ISBN 00-218046-4 Also, the A-4 Skyhawk force were dependent on the two available KC-130 tankers, limiting the amount of aeroplanes that could attack simultaneously."Two A-4B Skyhawks warplanes of the Grupo 5 link up...after topping up their tanks from a KC-130H tanker." page 62 in Air War in the Falklands 1982, 2001
Argentina's fleet of A-4 Skyhawk attack jets was in very poor condition. The arms embargo placed by the United States in 1976, due to the "Dirty War", had made most airframes unusable. The involvement of Israel in helping to return the A-4 to full operational status has been alleged, but has never been confirmed. Commodore Ruben Oscar Moro La Guerra Inaudita, 2000 ISBN 987-96007-3-8
The small air arm of the Argentine Navy was in the middle of the transition from the A-4Q Skyhawk to the new Super Etendard. Only five of the Etendard's anti-ship Exocet missiles had been delivered at the time of the conflict, at which point an arms embargo prevented the delivery of further shipments. Navy pilots, particularly those of the 3rd Naval Fighters Squadron flying A-4Qs were the only trained in the specific art of bombing warships. Air Force pilots trained during April against the two Argentine Type 42 destroyers, similar to those of the British Fleet, and according the Naval officers all the sorties were shot down causing great concern to the High Command until the successful May 1 strikes which they proved that aircraft could survive.
Finally, Argentine military aviation have never been involved in an international conflict, indeed the last time the Argentine military had been involved in an international conflict was the War of the Triple Alliance more than a century before.
In spite of these disadvantages, Argentine air units bore the brunt of the battle during the six-week war, and inflicted serious damage and losses to the naval forces of the United Kingdom. Low-flying jets attacking British ships would provide the world with some of the most sobering and dramatic images of the war. By the end of the conflict, the British forces had come to admire the FAA's spirited conduct in the face of an effective air defence networkChapter 12:"The British were awed by the courage of the Argentine pilots, flying suicidally low to attack, then vanishing amid flashes of pursuing Sea Cat, Blowpipe, Rapier, racing across the sky behind them. Alone among the enemy's three services, the air force seemed highly motivated and utterly committed to the battle. 'We should have been able to work out that any nation which produces first-class Formula One racing drivers is also likely to turn out some pretty good pilots.'" - Hastings, Max: The Battle for the Falklands (1983) Michael Joseph Ltd ISBN 0-7181-2228-3 during the hostilities, but as always, air power alone cannot win a war. Admiral Sandy Woodward, the British Task Force commander said: "[t]he Argentine Air Force fought extremely well and we felt a great admiration for what they did."clarin newspaper Clarin newspaper Woodward Interview
La fuerza aerea peleo extremadamente bien y nosotros sentimos una gran admiracion por lo que hicieron
The Air units involved in the Falklands War were under the following chain of command:
Military Junta - Brigadier General (Lieutenant General) Basilio Lami Dozo
* Air Defence Command - Brigadier Jorge Hughes. Was in charge of the radar network, Mirage IIIEA interceptors and anti-aircraft defences on the mainland.
* Strategic Air Command - Brigadier Helmuth Weber. Coordinated air assets through all the country. The CAE also had the main role of long range maritime surveillance with Boeing 707s and C-130 Hercules.
** Southern Air Force - Brigadier Ernesto Crespo. The FAS was the main organisation involved in combat over the conflict zone.
* South Atlantic Military Theatre - Vice Admiral Juan Lombardo. Basically a naval command with the role of coordinating the air, surface and submarine assets in the South Atlantic area. Initially, during the invasion of the Islands on 2 April and before hostilities broke out, the islands were supposedly to be under their command and was considered as the only organisation needed to managed the crisis.
** Falklands Military Garrison - Brigade General Mario Menendez (Army)
*** Air Component - Brigadier Luis Castellano.
[[Image:FAA Air Bases 1982.gif|right|400px|thumb|Argentine airbases: Distances to Port Stanley Airport: Trelew: , Comodoro Rivadavia: , San Julian: , Rio Gallegos: and Rio Grande: .
Due to the distance required to fly to the islands, two minutes was the average time Argentine attack aircraft had available in the target area.]]
Air units moved from home bases to southern facilities. Also feared about British/Chilean air strikes and/or SAS raids, Argentine aircraft were dispersed in the surrounding areas of their southern airfields, e.g., several parts of the national route 3 were used for this purpose.
Ezeiza International Airport, Buenos Aires
NAS Almirante Zar, Trelew, Chubut Province
AFB Comodoro Rivadavia, IX Air Brigade, Chubut Province ( FAS command site ) map
*FMA IA 58 Pucara
*CIC Comodoro, air traffic control center
Airfield Puerto San Julian, Santa Cruz Province
*IAI Dagger - La Marinete Squadron
*Cardion AN/TPS-44 radar w/ GADA 601 Army
Airfield Puerto Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Province
AFB Rio Gallegos, Santa Cruz Province
*FMA IA 58 Pucara
*Navy Exploration Squadron after 13 may: S-2E Trackers and 2 leased Brazilian Air Force EMB111 Bandeirantes (2-P-201 & 2-P-202)
*CIC Gallegos, air traffic control center
NAS Almirante Quijada, Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego
*IAI Dagger - Las Avutardas Salvajes Squadron
AFB Puerto Argentino, Port Stanley Airport, Falklands Islands
*FMA IA 58 Pucara Air Force
*Aermacchi MB.339A Navy
*T-34 Mentor Navy
*Helicopters from all services
*CIC Malvinas, AN/TPS-43 radar and anti-aircraft defences from all services
AFB Condor, Goose Green grass airfield, Falklands Islands
*FMA IA 58 Pucara Air Force
*Anti-aircraft cannons Air Force
NAS Calderon, Pebble Island grass airfield, Falklands Islands
*FMA IA 58 Pucara Air Force
*T-34 Mentor Navy
*Short Skyvan Coast Guard
Aircraft carrier ARA Veinticinco de Mayo, April 2 to May 3
*McDonnell Douglas A-4Q Skyhawk
*Grumman S-2E Tracker
*Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King
The numbers in bold are the number of aircraft engaged in combat without counting those in reserve, the numbers in brackets are the number of aircraft lost during the war.
Argentine Air Force
1st Air Brigade -
*Lockheed C-130H Hercules, 7 (1)
*Lockheed KC-130H Hercules Tanker 2
*Boeing 707 3
*Fokker F-28 6
* Fokker F-27 12
2nd Air Brigade - English Electric B.Mk62 Canberra 8 (2)
* Grupo Aerofotografico - Learjet 35A-L 2 (1)
3rd Air Brigade -
* Falkland Islands - FMA IA 58 Pucara 24 (13)
* Comodoro Rivadavia - FMA IA 58 Pucara ? (1)
4th Air Brigade - McDonnell Douglas A-4C Skyhawk 15 (9)
5th Air Brigade - McDonnell Douglas A-4B Skyhawk <35 (10)
6th Air Brigade - Israel Aircraft Industries Dagger 30 (11)
7th Air Brigade -
*Boeing CH-47C Chinook 2
*Bell 212 2
8th Air Brigade - Dassault Mirage IIIEA 17 (2)
(Argentine Naval Aviation)
1st Naval Air Attack Squadron - Aermacchi MB.339A 6 (2)
2nd Naval Air Fighter/Attack Squadron - Dassault Super Etendard 4 (sn. 3-A-201 was cannibalized for spare parts)
3rd Naval Air Fighter/Attack Squadron - McDonnell Douglas A-4Q Skyhawk 8 (3)
Naval Air Antisubmarine Squadron - Grumman S-2E Tracker 6
Naval Air Training Squadron - Beechcraft T-34 Mentor 4 (4)
Naval Air Exploration Squadron - Lockheed SP-2H Neptune 2 (both retired by end of May due airframe attrition)
1st Naval Air Helicopter Squadron -
*Aerospatiale Alouette AI03 10 (1)
*Sea Lynx 2 (1)
2nd Naval Air Helicopter Squadron - Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King 5
Naval Air Transport Squadrons -
*Lockheed L-188 Electra 3
*Fokker F-28 3
( Argentine Army Aviation )
601 Army Aviation Battalion -
*Boeing CH-47C Chinook 2 (1)
*Agusta A109 3 (1)
*Bell UH-1H Iroquois 9
*Aerospatiale Puma SA330L 5 (5).
* South Georgia April 3 - Aerospatiale Puma SA330L 1 (1)
Argentine Coast Guard
Aviation Service -
*Aerospatiale Puma SA330L 1
*Short Skyvan 2 (2)
Argentine traffic planes
Escuadron Fenix 30 civilian business planes:
Gates Learjet, Cessna Citation, Hawker Siddeley HS-125, Commander 690 and Mitsubishi MU-2.
Aerolineas Argentinas and Austral airlines:
Boeing 737 and Douglas DC-9 (airlift to Patagonia and Port Stanley).
Machineguns and cannons:
* 7.62 mm FM M2-20: Pucaras
* 20 mm Colt Mk.12 Cannon: A-4s
* 20 mm Hispano-Suiza HS.804 Cannon: Pucaras
* 30 mm DEFA cannon: IAI Daggers and Mirage IIIEA
* 70 mm: MB339s
* 105 mm: Pucaras
** AIM-9B Sidewinder short-range IR: only Navy A-4Q Skyhawks up to May 1
** Rafael Shafrir 2 short-range IR: only IAI Daggers on May 1** Matra R550 Magic short-range IR: received April 15 for Mirage IIIEA Official FAA magazine hacia el 15 Abr se producia la recepcion de los misiles Matra 550 Magic adquiridos tiempo antes
** Matra R530 short-range semi-active radar: Mirage IIIEA
** Aerospatiale AM.39 Exocet Anti-Ship Missile: 5 units on Super Etendards
** AS 30 air-surface missiles. Supplied by the Peruvian Air Force and arriving at the Tandil AFB (home base of the FAA Dagger) at the end of May, the war ended before they could be used.
Unguided retarders Gravity bomb: Thirteen unexploded bombs hit British ships without detonating as they were thrown from very low altitude and there was insufficient time in the air for them to arm themselves. The problem was solved by June with new fuzes (Kappa) bought in Spain .
* US built Mark 82 : A-4s and IAI Daggers
* British built "1000 lb" : A-4s, IAI Daggers and Canberras* NapalmChapter 21 The Bridgehead and Beyond, the battle for Darwin and Goose Green:"In late afternoon Pucaras attacked the British forces, two dropping napalm tanks which only just missed forward troops. Two Pucaras were shot down during the battle, along with an Aeromacchi [sic]. - Lawrence Freedman, Signals of War, The Falklands Conflict of 1982, 1990, Faber and Faber-London, ISBN 0-571-14116-1 : Pucaras
Battle of San Carlos (1982)
Bluff Cove Disaster
Attack Missions:!width="150"|System !width="600"|Obs |----- | Ships Sunk | HMS Sheffield, HMS Coventry, HMS Ardent, HMS Antelope, RFA Sir Galahad, Atlantic Conveyor plus a Landing Craft Utility ("Foxtrot Four" from Fearless) |----- | Ships Damaged Sir Lawrence Freedman: The Official History of the Falklands Campaign, 2005, Routledge, ISBN 0-7146-5207-5 | HMS Glasgow, HMS Antrim, HMS Brilliant, HMS Broadsword, HMS Alacrity, HMS Arrow, HMS Argonaut, HMS Plymouth, RFA Sir Bedivere, RFA Sir Lancelot, RFA Sir Tristram, RFA Stromness |----- | A-4 Skyhawk | 133 sorties by the A-4B and 86 by the A-4C. They flew with unreliable ejection seats due to the US embargo placed from 1977. Naval A-4Q performed 12 sorties. They were highly dependent on the two available KC-130 tankers, limiting the number of aeroplanes that could attack simultaneously. |----- | Canberra | 46 bombing sorties against ground targets, operating from Trelew, to avoid more congestion on the closer southern airfields. |----- | Dagger | 153 sorties against naval/ground targets by the two squadrons. Their lack of aerial refueling capacity severely affected their performance without any chance of manouvering over the islands. They were obliged to fly the shortest flightpath and had less than 10 minutes to find their targets. The discovery of their approach corridor by the British led to 7 aircraft being shot down by Sea Harriers CAP, something just realized when one of the downed Dagger pilots was recovered by own troops. By the end of May they began carrying an improvised chaff dispenser consisting of aluminium strips inside their airbrakes. |----- !Total Sorties:
| The above figures shown a total of 430 attack sorties from the mainland of which 18 aircraft were intercepted by the Sea Harriers and other 14 were shot down by anti aircraft defences.
Other Missions:!width="150"|System !width="600"|Obs |----- | Mirage IIIEA | Argentine sources indicate that a number were withdrawn from operations over the islands to protect the mainland against Vulcan strikes, however, they made 58 sorties providing decoys for the strike units with particular success on the June 8 attacks against the British landings ships . Their lesser internal fuel capacity, compared to the Daggers, prevented them from being used in their escort role. |----- | Boeing 707 | The unarmed airliner made 54 cargo flights and other 61 for reconnaissance and surveillance duties against the British Task Force heading south FAA map locating the fleet for the first time on April 21 when a Sea Harrier shephered the 707 away. On May 22 another 707 managed to evade 4 Sea Dart missiles launched against it but the risk of further sorties was too great and from that point on the 707's made no further attempt to find the Task Force. On another occasion they made a casual encounter with a British Nimrod both unarmed aircraft look each other and continued their missions. |----- | IA 58 Pucara | They performed reconnaissance and ground attack missions from the Falklands airfields and surveillance of the Patagonian coast from bases in Southern Argentina. Most of the island-based Pucaras were destroyed on the ground, due to the lack of Hardened Aircraft Shelters. They shot down a Royal Marines Westland Scout during the battle of Goose Green. |----- | Fenix Squadron | 126 decoying plus 52 reconnaissance sorties. They were also extensively used as communications relay and pathfinder flights to guide the combat jets with the Learjets superior navigation systems. |----- | C-130 Hercules | 33 night flights to BAM Puerto Argentino in May/June (Blockade runner). Among the cargo transported in those flight were the 602 Army Commandos Coy, 155 mm CITEFA cannons, an [[:Image:Itb.jpg|improvised land based]] Exocet launcher, the Roland SAM system and a RASIT radar replacement. They evacuated 263 wounded and a British PoW in their returning flights.
Starting 15 May, they also took over the dangerous task of searching for naval targets for the strike units, after the retirement of the last SP-2H Neptune available. On one of these daylight missions, a Hercules was intercepted and shot down by a Sea Harrier.
29 May, the British tanker British Wye was hit by bombs dropped by a Hercules, north of South GeorgiaSir Lawrence Freedman: The Official History of the Falklands Campaign, 2005, Routledge, ISBN 0-7146-5207-5
"British Wye, carrying fuel for the Task Force, came under attack by a modified C-130 Hercules...eight bombs were released, one of which struck the tanker without exploding. (Not officially recognized by the FAA)|----- | KC-130 Hercules | Refueling sorties for A-4s and Super Etendards, also for battle damaged fighters. |----- | Fokker F-28 Navy | 15 night flights to BAM Puerto Argentino in May/June (Blockade runner) |----- | Army Aviation | 796 helicopter flights on the islands |----- | 1st Air Brigade Construction Group Air Force
| In charge of maintaining Port Stanley airbase operable. Throughout the conflict, the airport installations were attacked with 237 bombs, 1,200 shells from the Royal Navy gunline and 16 missiles, however, it was never out of action entirely. Many sources claim that the runway was covered with piles of dirt during the day causing British intelligence to surmise that repairs were still in progress. Craters were in fact heaps of earth placed there to make it look as though the runway was damaged.. In fact, the British were well aware that the runway was still in use by C-130Morgan, David, Hostile Skies, Orion Books Limited, London, 2006, ISBN 978-0-7538-2199-2 and attempted to interdict these flights leading to the loss of a C-130 on June 1Ward, Sharkey,'Sea Harrier Over The Falklands: A Maverick at War, Phoenix; New Ed edition, London, 2007, ISBN 978-0-304-35542-6.
Casualties and aircraft losses
* 6 Army aviation
* 4 Naval aviation
* 55 Argentine Air Force members
** 29 pilots
** 12 air crew
** 14 Ground crew
Aircraft Lost in the Air: no suffix: Air Force
Argentine strike aircraft did not carry air-to-air missiles, with the exception of 8th Air Brigade Mirage IIIEA fighters and 6th Air Brigade Daggers on May 1. All retained a secondary armament of either 20 mm or 30 mm cannon.|----- | 11 | IAI Dagger A | 9 by Sea HarrierSN:
C-403, May21, Sea Harrier ZA190/"009", pilot Capt. Donadille ejected,
C-404, May21, Sea Harrier ZA190/"009", pilot Maj. Piuma ejected,
C-407, May21, Sea Harrier ZA175/"004", pilot Lt. Senn ejected,
C-409, May21, Sea Harrier XZ455/"12", pilot Lt. Luna ejected,
C-410, May24, Sea Harrier ZA193/"93", pilot Lt. Castillo killed,
C-419, May24, Sea Harrier XZ457/"14". pilot Maj. Puga ejected,
C-430, May24, Sea Harrier XZ457/"14". pilot Capt. Diaz ejected,
C-433, May1, Sea Harrier XZ455/"12". pilot Lt. Ardiles killed,
C-437, May23, Sea Harrier ZA194. pilot Lt. Volponi killed , 1 Sea Wolf HMS Broadsword, 1SAM Rapier |----- | 10 | A-4B Skyhawk | 3 by Sea Harrier, 3 Sea Wolf HMS Brilliant, 1 Sea Dart, 1 AAA HMS Fearless, 1 20mm cannon Fire from HMS Antelopeand 1 friendly fire |----- | 7 | A-4C Skyhawk | 2 by Sea Harrier, 3 Sea Dart, 1 Sea Cat from HMS Yarmouth, 1 combination Sea Cat/Rapier/Blowpipe/ |----- | 3 | FMA IA 58 Pucara | 1 by Sea Harrier, 1 SAM Stinger, 1 small arms fire 2nd PARA |----- | 3 | A-4Q Skyhawk Navy | 3 by Sea Harrier. |----- | 2 | Mirage IIIEA | 1 by Sea Harrier, 1 friendly fire |----- | 2 | B.Mk62 Canberra | 1 by Sea Harrier, 1 Sea Dart |----- | 1 | C-130E Hercules | 1 by Sea Harrier |----- | 1 | Aermacchi MB.339A Navy | 1 by Blowpipe |----- | 1 | Learjet 35A | 1 by SAM Sea Dart |----- | 3 | Puma SA330L Army
| 1 gun fire, 1 by SAM Sea Dart, 1 FIM-92 Stinger.|----- | 1 | Puma SA330L Army | Royal Marines gun fire in South Georgia, April 3
Destroyed on the ground
* 9 FMA IA 58 Pucara
* 1 Agusta A109 Army
* 1 Boeing Ch-47C Chinook Army
* 2 Aerospatiale Puma SA330L Army
* 4 Beechcraft T-34 Mentor Navy
* 2 Skyvan 3-M Coast Guard
* 2 Bell UH-1H Iroquois Army
Captured after the war
* 11 FMA IA 58 Pucara
* 2 Agusta A109 Army
* 7 Bell UH-1H Iroquois Army
* 1 Boeing CH-47C Chinook Army
* 1 Aerospatiale Puma SA330L Coast Guard
* 3 Aermacchi MB.339A Navy
* 2 Bell 212
'Lost with ARA General Belgrano'
* 1 Aerospatiale Alouette AI03 Navy
Flying accident in the war zone
* 1 Westland Lynx HAS.Mk.23 Navy2 May, hit ARA Santisima Trinidad
* 2 FMA IA 58 Pucara 28 May, hit ground, recovered in 1986, 24 May.
* 1 Aermacchi MB.339A Navy3 May, bad weather crash
* 2 McDonnell Douglas A-4C Skyhawk 9 May, South Jason Island
75 fixed wing aircraft and 25 helicopters.
FAA Commodore Ruben Oscar Moro La Guerra Inaudita, 2000 ISBN 987-96007-3-8
Dagger & Finger en ArgentinaISBN 987-43-8536-7 book link
Frederic Marsaly: Super Etendard au Combat: la saga d'un guerrier, Aviation Francaise Magazine, Jan/Feb 2007, ISSN 1951-9583.
British site about Argentine Aircraft lost
Britains Small Wars.com
Chant, C.: Air War in the Falklands 1982, 2001, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-293-8
Gunston, B.: Aviation Fact File (Modern Fighting Aircraft) - Harrier'', 1984, Salamander Books Ltd., ISBN 0-86101-128-7
Argentine Airpower in the Falklands War - Analysis and Conclusions
[https://research.maxwell.af.mil/papers/ay2005/acsc/3111%20-%20Green.pdf Argentina's Tactical Aircraft Employment in the Falklands Islands War ] - Air Command and Staff College, Air University, USAF
Argentine Air Force (FAA) official site about the Malvinas/Falkland Air War
Argentine Coast Guard (PNA) official site about the Malvinas/Falkland War
YouTube video Argentine Air Force on the Falklands War
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