The Peruvian Amazon is the area of the Amazon jungle that is confined within the territory of Peru, from the east of the Andes to borders with Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil and Bolivia. This region comprises more than half of the country and is an area with great biodiversity and endemism. The Peruvian Amazon is the second largest jungle after the Brazilian Amazon.
Contrary to what is commonly believed, most Peruvian territory is covered by dense Amazon forests, although a minority of its population lives in this area. The Amazon rain forest covers more than 60 percent of Peruvian territory, more than in any other country save Brazil.
According to the Research Institute of the Peruvian Amazon , the spatial delineation of the Peruvian Amazon is as follows:
Ecological criteria: 782,880.55 km (60.91% of Peruvian territory and approximately 11.05% of the whole Amazon jungle).
Hydrographic criteria or basin criteria: 967,922.47 km (75.31% of Peruvian territory and approximately 16.13% of the whole Amazon basin).
Ecoregions and climate
The Peruvian Amazon is traditionally divided into two distinct ecoregions:
The lowland jungle (in Spanish Selva Bafoja) is also known as Omagua region, walla, anti, Amazonian rain forest, or Amazon basin. This ecoregion is the largest of Peru, standing between 80 and 400 meters above sea level (masl). It has very warm weather with an average temperature of 28 C, high relative humidity (over 75 percent) and large amounts of rainfall. Its soils are very heterogeneous, but almost all have river origins, and due to high temperatures and high rainfall they are poor soils with few nutrients. It contains long and strong rivers such as the Amazon, Ucayali, Maranon, Putumayo, Yavari, Napo and Pastaza Tigre.
The highland jungle (in Spanish Selva Alta) is also called Rupa-Rupa region, andean jungle, ceja de selva or ceja de montana. This ecoregion extends into the eastern foothills of the Andes, between 400 to 1000 masl. Temperatures are warm in the lowlands and cold in higher altitudes. There are many endemic fauna because of the isolation caused by the rugged terrain of this area.
The Peruvian Amazon jungle is one of the most biologically diverse areas on Earth. There is such a variety of species that most of them are probably still not discovered, or at least adequately studied. Peru is the country with largest number of bird species in the world and the third of mammals, with 44 percent and 63 percent respectively inhabiting the Peruvian Amazon. Peru also has a very large number of species of butterflies, orchids, and other organisms. List of Peruvian monkey species
This table was elaborated by Edwin Jesus Villacorta Monzon, with data obtained among many sources from years 1997, 2001 and 2006.
Although it is the largest region of Peru, the Peruvian Amazon is the least populated. It is home to approximately 11 percent of the country's population. Large numbers of indigenous people, such as the Aguaruna, Cocama-Cocamilla and the UrarinaDean, Bartholomew 2009 Urarina Society, Cosmology, and History in Peruvian Amazonia, Gainesville: University Press of Florida ISBN 978-081303378 [*] inhabit the jungle, some in relative isolation from the rest of the world. The primary cities located in the Peruvian Amazon include:In the lowland jungle:
- Iquitos with 500 000 inhabitants at 104 masl (Loreto region)
- Pucallpa, with 180 000 inhabitants at 154 masl (Ucayali region)
- Yurimaguas with 64 000 inhabitants at 182 masl (Loreto region)
- Puerto Maldonado with 40 000 inhabitants at 139 masl (Madre de Dios region)
- Nauta with 35 914 inhabitants at 111 masl (Loreto region)In the highland jungle:
- Tarapoto with 181 000 inhabitants at 350 masl (San Martin region)
- Jaen with 68 743 inhabitants at 729 masl (Cajamarca region)
- Moyobamba with 55 000 inhabitants at 860 masl (San Martin region)
- Bagua at 400 masl (Amazonas region)
- Rioja at 848 masl (at San Martin region)
Iperu, tourist information and assistance
2009 Peruvian political crisis
Legal logging and illegal logging
[[:Category:People of the Amazon]]
IIAP - Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana (Peruvian Amazonia Institute for the Investigation)
Siamazonia - Sistema de Informacion de la Diversidad Biologica y Ambiental de la Amazonia Peruana (Peruvian Amazonia Information Facility)
WWF in the Amazon rainforest
Amazon Alliance Information about the indigenous peoples of the Amazon rainforest and their struggles to protect their homeland.
NPR: Paving Paradise for Progress A transcontinental highway under construction in Peru and Brazil is bringing the prospects of economic opportunity and environmental ruin to some of the most remote places on the planet.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Peruvian Amazon