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Maracaibo is the second-largest city in Venezuela after the national capital Caracas and is the capital of Zulia state. The population of the city was 1,571,885 in the 2001 Census, the metropolitan area is similar in population with Zulia state at just under 3 million in the Census. An intercensal estimate for 2009 by Instituto Nacional de Estadistica lists 1,891,800 for Maracaibo and around 3.7 million for the metropolitan area and Zulia state.
Maracaibo is nicknamed La Tierra del Sol Amada ("The Beloved Land of the Sun").
The city was founded three times. First in 1529 by the German Ambrosio Alfinger, who named it Maracaibo or Villa de Maracaibo. The lack of activity in the zone made Nicolas de Federman evacuate the village in 1535 and move its population to Cabo de la Vela nearby Coro. A second attempt by Captain Alonso Pacheco turned into failure. The third and definite foundation of the city, occurs in 1574 when Captain Pedro Maldonado, under Governor Diego de Mazariego', command establishes the village with the name of Nueva Zamora de Maracaibo to honour Mazariego's place of birth, Zamora in Spain. Since its definite foundation the town began to develop as a whole. It is based on the western side of Lake Maracaibo which is the dominant feature of the oil-rich Maracaibo Basin. Favoured by prevailing winds and a protected harbour, the city is located on the shores of the lake where the narrows, which eventually lead to the Gulf of Venezuela, first become pronounced.
The name Maracaibo comes from the brave Cacique (Indian Chief) Mara a young native who valiantly resisted the Germans and died fighting them. It is said that when Mara fell, the Indians shouted "Mara cayo !!" (Mara fell !!), thus originating the city name. Other historians say that the first name of this land in Indian language was "Maara-iwo" meaning "Place where serpents abound".
For about 390 years, Maracaibo remained isolated and separated from the rest of the country. Transportation was only possible across the lake by ferry or other marine transport.
Cars, buses, and lorries, with their constant flow of manufactured goods and agricultural product, depended on the ferry system between the city and the eastern shore with their roads to connect to the country's motorway system. Maracaibo and the Lake Maracaibo region's economy was more linked to Colombia than to eastern Venezuela due to the natural route available through Lake Maracaibo then leading to the sea.
This isolation was both a challenge and an advantage. The very nature of the city's location made for a population known for their independent thought and character. The history of this region is plagued with stories about the creation of an independent and sovereign nation apart from Venezuela, a nation called La Republica Independiente del Zulia, which means The Independent Republic of Zulia, but this has never come to be.
The dictatorial regime of General Marcos Perez Jimenez in the 1950s set as a goal the construction of a bridge connecting the two lake shores. Various bridge projects for the spanning of the Lake Maracaibo narrows near the city were in the works. The general's government had decided that this "city of independent thought" should be more "connected" to the rest of the country.
Proposals for a bridge design that included rail transport and tourist facilities were seriously considered. The fall of the Perez Jimenez government on January 23, 1958, quickly led to a less elaborate design project that was approved and funded by a democratic and more conservative government.
The building of "El Puente Sobre El Lago de Maracaibo "General Rafael Urdaneta"(General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge over Lake Maracaibo) named after the distinguished General hero of the War of Independence was opened to public traffic in 1962. The project was completed on schedule in 40 months.
This bridge construction project was a remarkable feat. Built under very difficult conditions, when completed, it became the longest prestressed concrete bridge in the world. The structure is in constant use and remains today as the most important link between Maracaibo, along with much of the state of Zulia, and the rest of Venezuela.
Maracaibo was elevated to the status of Roman Catholic Archdiocese on 30 April 1966 with the creation of the Archdiocese of Maracaibo. Since November 2000, its Archbishop has been Ubaldo Ramon Santana Sequera.
Henry Morgan's Attack
In March of 1669, Henry Morgan sacked Maracaibo, which had emptied out when his fleet was first spied, and moved on to the Spanish settlement of Gibraltar on the inside of Lake Maracaibo in search of more treasure. A few weeks later, when he attempted to sail out of the lake, Morgan found an occupied fort blocking the inlet to the Caribbean, along with three Spanish ships. These were the Magdalena, the San Luis, and the Soledad. He destroyed the Magdalena and burned the San Luis by sending a dummy ship full of gunpowder to explode near them, after which the crew of the Soledad surrendered. By faking a landward attack on the fort, thereby convincing the Spanish governor to shift his cannon, he eluded their guns and escaped.
Francois de Pons, an agent to the French government in Caracas, provides some historical insight into the people of Maracaibo in his travel journal . The following excerpts describe the local population of Maracaibo:
They perform coasting, or long voyages, with equal facility; and when all trade is suspended by the operations of war, they enter privateers. Bred up in the neighbourhood of the lake, they are mostly all expert swimmers and excellent divers. Their reputation stands equally high as soldiers. Those who do not enter into the sea service, form plantations, or assist in cultivating those, which belong to their fathers. Nothing proves better their aptitude for this kind of occupation, than the immense flocks of cattle with which the savannas of Maracaybo [sic] are covered.
He also notes the appreciation of literature, the arts, education, and culture among the people of Maracaibo:
But what confers the greatest honour on the inhabitants of Maracaibo, is their application to literature; in which, notwithstanding the wretched state of public education, they make considerable progress....They likewise acquired the art of elocution, and of writing their mother tongue with the greatest purity; in a word, they possessed all the qualities which characterise men of letters.
During the period of de Pons' visit, however, he believed the men of Maracaibo to lack integrity with regard to honouring their commitments:
After allowing that the inhabitants of this city possess activity, genius, and courage, we have nothing further to say in their praise. They are accused of violating their promises, and even of attempting to break through written engagements. Their character, in this respect, is so notorious, that every stranger whom business induces to visit Maracaybo, affirms, that it would be much better to enter into commercial speculations with the women, because they appear themselves to possess that sincerity and good sense which are every where else considered as belonging particularly to men.
Maracaibo has become a large metropolitan city, comprising two municipalities: to the north the municipality of Maracaibo and to the south the San Francisco municipality (established in 1995). In recent years, due to political/economic and cultural reasons, many have moved to Maracaibo from rural areas and other cities (including Caracas).
In the political arena, the citizens of Maracaibo (and most other cities and municipalities in Zulia state) have in recent years voted for a competitive political system in where the governor is from a certain political party and the mayor or mayors are from the opposite political party. This system has brought many good things to the city and the state; for example, if the governor builds a bridge, one of the mayors will build two, if a mayor cleans a public park, the governor retaliates by cleaning and remodelling another one.
Maracaibo also boasts one of the best universities in the country, the state university. La Universidad del Zulia (LUZ) is well renowned for its excellent law and medical schools. Other major universities and schools include Universidad Rafael Belloso Chacin (URBE), with its excellent engineering school, and Universidad Rafael Urdaneta, with one of the country's leading psychology schools.
Culture in Maracaibo is very indigenous and autochthonous, is recognized in every state and city in Venezuela, and is very influential with its gaitas, desserts, style, living, and customs. Most major houses of advertising in Venezuela acknowledge how opposite the culture of Maracaibo is from that of Caracas. Studies of both prove, for example, that Caracas' leading soft drink brand is Coke, while in Maracaibo it is Pepsi. This has made many brands create special localised advertising of their products (including several Pepsi commercials spoken by local celebrities).
The Maracuchos (and most of the inhabitants of Zulia state) are known to be the only users, in Venezuela, of the Castilian dialect, using words such as "vos" when referring to the second person singular, as is done in Argentina, Uruguay, and much of Central America; in the rest of the country the word "tu" or "usted" is used. This has led Maracuchos to be recognized almost anywhere by their rough accent.
Maracuchos are extremely proud of their city, their culture, and all of Zulia. They usually claim that Venezuela wouldn't be the country it actually is without Zulia. Rivalry with inhabitants of other regions is common, specially with Gochos (people of the Merida and Tachira state) and Caraquenos (people of the city of Caracas).
Unfortunately, the city of Maracaibo has no facilities to treat domestic sewage.Appropriate Technology for Sewage Pollution Control in the Wider Caribbean Region, Caribbean Environment Programme Technical Report 40 1998 All sewage is pumped into Lake Maracaibo which, along with the removal of the land bridge to the sea, has been responsible for transforming the lake from crystal clear waters teeming with fish to a brackish green mess.
Law and government
Maracaibo has one municipality: Maracaibo Municipality, Venezuelan law specifies that municipal governments have four main functions: executive, legislative, comptroller, and planning. The executive function is managed by the mayor, who is in charge of representing the municipality's administration. The legislative branch is represented by the Municipal Council, composed of seven councillors, charged with the deliberation of new decrees and local laws. The comptroller tasks are managed by the municipal comptroller's office, which oversees accountancy. Finally, planning is represented by the Local Public Planning Council, which manages development projects for the municipality. According to United Nations reports, Maracaibo like Caracas has significant infrastructure deficiencies under current government, including shortfalls in clean drinking water.
The city of Maracaibo is located at the denominated Maracaibo plain. It has low fertility, typical of a dry-tropical forest. It presents a great number of rivers, sewers and gorges. The city dominates the entrance to Lake Maracaibo.
Maracaibo is one of the cities of Venezuela where the highest temperatures are registered, it has a severe warm climate, only attenuated by the moderating influence of the lake, its average historical temperature is 29 C. In the past the climate of the city, as well in all the coast of the Lake Maracaibo, was unhealthy, due to the combination of high temperatures with high humidity, being a zone of importance. At the present time, the effects of urban development, and control of plagues, has almost eradicated that. The registered high temperature of the city is 41.0 C, and the low 18.0 C.
Colleges and universities
Several universities are based in the city:
Universidad del Zulia - (LUZ)
Universidad Nacional Experimental de la Fuerza Armada UNEFA
Universidad Rafael Belloso Chacin - (URBE)
Universidad Rafael Urdaneta
Universidad Catolica Cecilio Acosta
Universidad Dr. Jose Gregorio Hernandez
Universidad Bolivariano de Venezuela sede Zulia
The Maracaibo Metro, also known as Metro del Sol Amado (due to the city nickname), is a subway system currently under construction, it encompasses the suburbs of Maracaibo with the city's downtown. Currently, six metro stations are open and running.
Buses are the main means of mass transportation, this system runs a variety of bus types, operated by several companies on normal streets and avenues:
bus; large buses.
buseta; medium size buses.
microbus or colectivo; vans or minivans.
por puesto; cars.
La Chinita International Airport, was opened on November 16, 1969, during the government of president Rafael Caldera to open a gate to the western part of the country and alleviate congestion from the Simon Bolivar Airport near Caracas, which manages about 90% of the international flights in Venezuela. In fact, the only international destinations from Maracaibo are Aruba, Bogota, Barranquilla, Cartagena, Curacao, Miami and Panama City.General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge, inaugurated in 1962, is located at the outlet Lake Maracaibo, in western Venezuela. The bridge connects Maracaibo with much of the rest of the country. It is named after General Rafael Urdaneta, a Venezuelan hero in the War of Independence.
Made of concrete, it spans 8.7 kilometres (5.4 miles). The bridge is a cable-stayed bridge that carries only vehicles. The competition to design the bridge started in 1957 and was won by Riccardo Morandi, an Italian. Construction was done by several companies. They included: Grun & Bilfinger, Julius Berger, Bauboag AG, Philipp Holzmann AG, Precomprimido C.A., Wayss & Freytag and K Ingenieria.
Due to the regionalistic nature of Marabinos, they strongly support their native teams. Maracaibo, and the rest of Zulia, are represented in baseball by the Aguilas del Zulia, a Venezuelan winter league team that plays in the Liga Venezolana de Beisbol Profesional,and which is based in the Estadio Luis Aparicio El Grande. Regional teams include the Union Atletico Maracaibo and the Zulia FC in football, and the Gaiteros del Zulia in basketball, a team that participates in the Liga Profesional de Baloncesto de Venezuela, whose home is the 5.000-people Pedro Elias Belisario Aponte stadium.
Their city has one football stadium:
Estadio Jose Pachencho Romero, constructed in 1971 for the Juegos Deportivos Bolivarianos, and redesigned in 1998, for the Juegos Deportivos Centroamericanos y del Caribe. It is named after an athlete from Zulia. With a capacity of 26 000 spectators is being extended to 35 000 for the Copa America 2007.
In the 2000 Little League World Series, the Sierra Maestra Little League of Maracaibo, Venezuela defeated Bellaire Little League of Bellaire, Texas in the championship game of the 54th Little League World Series.
Baseball: Aguilas del Zulia BBC.
Soccer: Union Atletico Maracaibo, Zulia FC
Basket: Gaiteros del Zulia
An interesting aspect of the city, is the humor and the musical culture of its people, the Gaita Zuliana, is a traditional christmas music from the region. It is known that Maracaibo was culturally separated from the rest of Venezuela, for geographical and historical reasons. The Lake Maracaibo maintained separated the city, with its neighboring states and Caracas, capital of Venezuela. The people from Maracaibo, having been influenced by Andalusian colonists, apply the term "vos" instead of usted ; making it one of the few places in the Americas to use the Castilian dialect. The "vos" term, the fast speaking and the strong tone of the voice, produced a particular style, that nowadays is a mark of origin of the people from Maracaibo.
The city is also home to an array of immigrants from but not limited to: Spain, Italy, Germany, and Latin American countries.
The General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge, the freeway Machiques Colon, and the ship transportation, unites the communications of the city, with the rest of Venezuela, this united with the oil boom, cultivated since 1914, is going to conform a new Maracaibo.
Our Lady of Rosario of Chiquinquira
Is one of the many popular representations of the Virgin Mary in Venezuela. The image is most venerated in Maracaibo. The story of discovery of the virgin dates from the XVIII century. An old lady would make a living by washing other people's clothes, a job she did every morning at the shores of the lake. On 18 November 1709, she had taken a bulk of clothes, and as usual, headed to the lake to start washing them. This old lady was at her chores when she saw a wooden board floating towards her. She picked it up thinking that it might be of some use. When she finished her work, she went home carrying the clothes, the board and a small vase with fresh water. She then placed the board on top of the vase. Then, she noticed a small figure in the board but could not tell what it was like.
She fell asleep, and when she awoke up it was already late and dark. She decided to go to a local grocery store to buy some candles. On her way back a small gathering of people had formed outside her house, and after coming closer she noted that her home was filled with light. After entering she and some of the neighbours witnessed the small wooden board floating in the air surrounded by light with a bright crisp image of the Virgin Mary. At this, everyone was amazed and called the event a miracle.
Since that day the street where she lived was renamed "El Milagro" which means Miracle in Spanish, and to this day it is one of the most important streets in the neighbourhood of "El Saladillo" in the city of Maracaibo.
The Gaita is the name of an Afro Venezuelan folk music from Maracaibo, it is normally considered a christmas-time music. According to Joan Corominas, it popularised in the middle 60's of the XX century in all the country, and it fused with other types of music like salsa and merengue in the 70's. There are many famous Gaita groups like: Maracaibo 15, Gran Coquivacoa, Barrio Obrero, Cardenales del Exito, Guaco , Koquimba, Melody Gaita, Estrellas del Zulia, Saladillo, and many others.
Ricardo Aguirre - Composer and singer.
Wilson Alvarez - Former Major League Baseball left-handed pitcher.
Luis Aparicio - Former shortstop in Major League Baseball and a member of the Baseball Hall of Fame.
Jose Domingo de las Nieves Rus y Ortega Azarraulia - statesman of high caliber who abrogated for the secession of Zulia as a separate and independent state.
Rafael Maria Baralt - Artillery captain, engineer, journalist, historian, philologist, and writer.
Gustavo Chacin - MLB starting pitcher for the Toronto Blue Jays.
Gilberto Correa - TV host.
David Cubillan - Basketball player, Marquette University.
Chiquinquira Delgado - actress & TV host.
Lupita Ferrer - Actress.
Juan Bautista Fuenmayor - Historian, politician, lawyer, teacher, and founder of the first petroleum syndicates.
Betulio Gonzalez - Former boxer.
Geremi Gonzalez - MLB player for the Chicago Cubs, Tampa Bay Devil Rays, Boston Red Sox, New York Mets, and the Milwaukee Brewers.
Juan Pablo Guanipa - Political leader.
Ninibeth Leal - Miss World 1991.
Jesus Enrique Lossada - Journalist, lawyer, parliamentary, President of the Universidad del Zulia, teacher, writer.
Carlos Meyer - Fighter pilot. The only Latin American member (though ethnic German) of the Red Baron's flying circus, awarded the Iron Cross during World War I.
Armando Molero - Songwriter.
Humberto Fernandez Moran - A research scientist. He developed the diamond scalpel and founded "IVIC", the Venezuelan scientific research institute ("Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas")
Lila Morillo - Actress & singer.
Francisco Ochoa - First President of the Universidad del Zulia.
Udon Perez - Author of the Zulia State Anthem.
Francisco Javier Pirela - Conspirator against the Spanish Crown.
Venancio Pulgar - Zulian caudillo, partisan for the independence of the region.
Nick Pocock - Former cricketer, ex-captain of Hampshire.
Joaquin Primo de Rivera - Governor, shifted industrialization in the state.
Daniel Sarcos - TV host.
Monica Spear - Miss Universe 2005 4th runner up.
Orlando Urdaneta - Actor.
Rafael Urdaneta - Hero of the Latin American war for independence.
Vivian Urdaneta - Miss International 2000.
Patricia Velasquez - Actress and fashion model.
Maracaibo has four sister city:
Durban, South Africa
Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America
New Orleans, United States of America
San Juan, Puerto Rico, United States of America
Maracaibo en Internet
Panorama Digital -Largest Maracaibo based newspaper
[*] Cada lugar en Maracaibo, Directorio de empresas.
La Verdad - Maracaibo-based independent newspaper.
Maracaibo de Noche.com Nightlife and entertainment in Maracaibo.
Maracaibo Wiki A wiki based Maracaibo guide.
Guia Gastronomica de Maracaibo A blog-alike reviews of some of the city's restaurants and street food vendors.
Mi Ternerita Restaurant - Top rated Maracaibo's Bar & Grill
Mi Vaquita Restaurant - Top rated & Most traditional Steak House in Maracaibo
FallingRain Map - elevation = 2m
Line note references
Cada Lugar en Maracaibo.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Maracaibo