Currency of Venezuela
This article provides a historical summary of the currency used in Venezuela since the end of the 18th century. For the present currency of Venezuela, see Venezuelan bolivar.
Peso = 8 Reales (silver)
Escudo = 2 Pesos (gold)
Venezuela shared the common Spanish-American monetary system, based on the silver peso and the gold escudo, current throughout Spanish America. Trade, especially in cacao, brought money to the colony in the late 17th century in the form of coin from the Mexico City mint. The money supply increased significantly after the Compania Guipuzcoana de Caracas obtained a trade monopoly in 1729, and Spanish and Spanish-American coin became a common form of payment. The prohibition on the circulation of American coin in Spain resulted in coin from the Spanish mints returning to Spain. The Guipuzcoana Company then brought in a large quantity of cobs (macuquina) from the Lima, Potosi, and Mexico City mints. This cob coinage remained the coinage in circulation for many years, only disappearing in the first years of the Republic.
There was a special coinage for Venezuela in 1787. Claiming a shortage of circulating coin, Caracas petitioned for distinctive coins with an intrinsic value below standard that the would only circulate locally. This request was granted by a royal ordinance of December 25, 1786. Another ordinance, February 3, 1787, authorized 200,000 pesos in coins only 60 percent of standard weight. These coins were minted at Mexico City and shipped on April 16. But some officials learned that the coins were not distinctivethey dicffered from regular coinage only in weightand protested the issue, fearing they could be passed as regular coin. A royal ordinance of August 20, 1787 ordered the coins withdrawn and they were recalled and melted down in 1788.
The later 18th century was characterized by an inadequate money supply, and merchants used tokens (senasor fichas) to facilitate retail trade. By 1795 the use of use of tokens was very widespread, but their unregulated issue and use was considered a problem. To deal with this situation, the Caracas Cabildo (council) authorized official copper tokens, and Venezuela's first mint opened at Caracas in November 1802.
1787 lightweight coinage
Lightweight coinage for Venezuela, Mexico City mint:
1 real, 20 mm, 2.02 g
2 reales, 4.05 g.
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1810-1821 Struggle for independence
Peso = 8 Reales
Escudo = 2 Pesos
Inspired by the French assignats, Gen. Francisco de Miranda proposed an issue of paper money, which Congress approved August 27, 1811 in the amount of one million pesos. Congress also authorized (October 25) one million pesos in copper coin. The notes were put into circulation November 18, 1811 as a forced tender backed by national revenues. They were not popular, and gold and silver disappeared from circulation. A mint was created to produce copper coin of the macuquina type. There was insufficient metal on hand, and copper objects had to be requisitioned (1812).
The currency situation during this period differed from province to province. Maracaibo and Guayana produced royalist coinage; Margarita and Barinas, republican. Both republicans and royalists minted at Caracas, the city changing hands more than once.
On November 21, 1819, Simon Bolivar decreed an emergency issue to pay military expenses. This was done by stamping "LIBERTAD AMERICANA 1819" on coins with the legend "Nueva Granada" that had accumulated at the Santa Fe mint. These coins were sent to the army in Venezuela, where they became known as chipi chipi.
The republicans authorized notes August 27, 1811 (released November 18): 1, 2 4, 8, and 16 pesos. A supplement of November 27, 1811 authorized 20,000 pesos in small cardboard notes of 2 reales. The peso notes were counterfeited extensively, so a second issue of new design was authorized February 7, 1812. A third issue, authorized December 31, 1812 appeared just before the royalists occupied Caracas. The royalists recovered as many notes as possible and had them burned in La Victoria.
macuquina-style copper dated 1812:
macuquina-style silver dated Ano 2:
Caracas - Royalist coinage
The royalists minted cob-style macuquina until 1817, then General Pablo Morillo had new-style coin inscribed "CARACAS" minted. This latter coin circulated widely; it was known as morillera in Venezuela and as caraquena elsewhere..
copper dated 1813-1821:
silver dated 1817-1821:
2 reales, 0555-0898 fine, 450-580 g
When republican forces under Gen. Jose Antonio Paez occupied Barinas, the city was overrun by refugees. In March 1817 at El Yagual, Paez asked that all silver be turned in. He then minted silver octoganal coins for the army at Caujaral and Achaguas. Bolivar did not favor this act and decreed that the coins should not circulate outside the province of Barinas.
2 reales, 0402 fine
Royalist copper coinage was authorized for Guayana October 26, 1813, because the province was cut off from other Spanish forces:
medio or 1/2 real .
2 reales .
4 maravedis, 29 mm (1810).
1821-1830 Gran Colombia
1821-1830 Gran Colombia
Peso = 8 Reales (silver)
Onza = 16 Pesos (gold)
While Venezuela was federated with Nueva Granada (modern Colombia) and Quito (Ecuador) in Gran Colombia, 1821-1830, the monetary laws in force were those of Colombia.
Bolivar prohibited the circulation of all copper coin and all post-1810 royalist coin that had not been counterstamped at Bogota. Only milled coin (new or old) and the old Spanish macuquina were permitted to circulate.
Congress ordered all gold and silver coin minted in Gran Colombia to meet the old Spanish standards . Gold and silver were minted at Bogota and Popayan, while the Caracas mint produced copper cuartillos (1/4 real) between July 14, 1821 and its closure on October 31, 1822. This copper coin was legal tender to one peso fuerte. Coins were inscribed REPUBLICA DE COLOMBIA.
The monetary law of March 14, 1826 provided for a gold coinage based on the Colombian gold peso (peso colombiano de oro) of 1797238 g, and a silver coinage based on the Colombian silver peso (peso colombiano de plata).
Bolivar's monetary law of November 6, 1828 confirmed the unrestricted circulation of macuquina, and the Department of Venezuela decreed the obligatory acceptance of silver macuquinaa seller who refused legal macuquina being subject to a fine or imprisonment.
Jose Antonio Paez, who eventually came to lead the separatist movement in Venezuela, reopened the Caracas mint in 1829 and authorized a silver peseta (2 reales) and a copper cuartillo. The Caracas mint then closed for good (October 1830).
Coin (Caracas mint)
peseta or 2 reales (1829).
1830-1848 Peso fuerte (silver)
Peso (Peso sencillo) = 8 Reales = 100 Centavos or 80 Centavos fuertes
Peso fuerte = 10 Reales = 100 Centavos fuertes (from 1832)
The currency in 1830 was chaotic. Circulation consisted of old silver macuquina minted at Caracas under both royalists and republicans and of silver and gold coin from the various American states, especially from Colombia. Good quality silver coin tended to disappear from circulation (being used to pay for imports). Macuquina and worn coin remained to serve retail trade. The government published a table December 30, 1830 fixing the value of foreign coin in terms of local macuquina. On December 22, 1832, the Secretary of Finance ordered customs houses and finance offices to receive and pay out the silver peso fuerte as equivalent to 10 reales of silver macuquina. After this, peso or peso sencillo (current peso) indicated payment in macuquina; peso fuerte indicated payment in standard silver pesos.
On May 13, 1834 Congress gave legal tender status to: (1) the peso fuerte and onza de oro and their fractions, whether from Spain or one of the American republics, so long as they were of standard weight and fineness; (2) the peso fuerte (silver dollar) of the United States and its fractions; (3) the French franc; (4) the British shilling; and, (5) the pesos of Portugal and Brazil. A decree of June 26, 1834 ended the circulation of 1/4-real macuquina dated 1829-1830. Then on March 25, 1835 Congress authorized circulation of a hitherto unfamiliar coinage, copper centavos (cents) of the United States.
To replace macuquina, Congress authorized the government, May 2, 1840, to obtain French francs (and halves and quarters) and United States silver 5, 10, and 20-cent pieces and copper cents and half-cents. On March 23, 1841 Congress prohibited further circulation of any kind of macuquina, and macuquina was withdrawn and exchanged, 100,000 pesos in French coin being distributed to the provinces to facilitate this operation.
The monetary law of March 29, 1842 was based on the peso fuerte of 10 reales or 100 centavos. It provided for a national copper coinage (minted at London), which was legal tender for all debts public and private. When these coins were put into circulation, the legal tender status of copper cents (centavos) from the United States was revoked .
The first bank to issue paper money was the Banco Colonial Britanico, established July 29, 1839 with a capital of $300,000. It issued notes for 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 pesos sencillos. It closed in 1849.
Banco Nacional de Venezuela was created by act of Congress, May 17, 1841, with a capital of 2.5 million pesos. It was authorized to issue notes for 5, 20, 100, and 500 pesos. The only notes known (as of 2002) are for 5 and 20 pesos, printed by New England Bank Note Co. of Boston. The bank terminated operations on March 23, 1850.
Copper centavos dated 1843, with liberty-head (obv), were produced at the Royal Mint, London:
1/2c, 24 mm, 600 g (096 million)
1c, 32 mm, 1210 g (048 million).
1848-1854 Franco (silver)
Franco = 2 Reales = 20 Centavos
Peso = 5 Francos = 10 Reales = 100 Centavos
The monetary law of March 30, 1848 established the French franc (franco frances), 500 g, 0900 fine, as the monetary unit of Venezuela. No detailed explanation was providedpresumably, the new government wanted to make a clean break with the policies of the conservative oligarchy that it replaced. A table of coin ratings expressed in francos was published, and the franco was declared equal to 20-centavos of the copper coins authorized between 1834 and 1842.
Liberty-head copper centavos dated 1852 were minted at Birmingham and London.
Birmingham Mint Ltd.:
1/2c, 24 mm, 570 g (0.5 million)
1c, 315 mm, 1140 g (025 million).
Royal Mint, London:
1/2c, 22 mm, 540 g (1 million)
1c, 305 mm, 1090 g (05 million).
1854-1857 Venezolano (gold and silver)
Venezolano (Peso) = 10 Reales = 100 Centavos
Conversion: 1 venezolano = 5 francos
A new monetary law, April 1, 1854, provided for a mint in Caracas to produce a national coinage based on both gold and silver. The gold coins would be: onza, media onza, doblon (1/4 onza), escudo (1/8 onza), and venezolano de oro (1/16 onza or peso de oro). Silver coins were: peso fuerte or venezolano de plata, medio peso, peseta (1/4 peso), real (1/8 peso), and medio real (1/16 peso). Copper coins were to be the cuarto and octavo. The government was unable to establish the mint, and no coins were produced.
Compania de Accionistas was formed December 4, 1855 with a capital of $600,000. It issued notes for 5 pesos sencillos and rendered services to the Treasury until it closed in March 1858.
1857-1865 Peso fuerte de oro (gold)
Peso fuerte de oro = 10 Reales = 100 Centavos
For want of a national mint, the 1854 monetary law had remained unimplemented, so Congress passed a new law authorizing coinage abroad. The basic coin was to be the gold peso fuerte of 161290 g, 0900 fine, accompanied by two multiples, a doblon (10 pesos fuertes) and an escudo (5 pesos fuertes). The silver coins, 0900 fine, were: medio peso (5 reales), 1150 g, 30 mm; peseta (2 reales), 460 g, 23 mm; real, 230 g, 18 mm; and, medio real, 115 g, 16 mm. There was also a centavo, 95% copper and 5% tin-zinc, 750 g, 25 mm. None of the gold coins were ever minted.
Following a series of provisional governments during the civil war of 1859-1861, the Guerra Larga, J.A. Paez was proclaimed dictator on September 10, 1861. Paez authorized coins with his own effigy and a contract was signed with the Paris Mint, , but he was overthrown by a revolt before the coins were shipped from Paris.
Postage stamps came into use January 1, 1859 in denominations of 1/2, 1, and 2 reales. Newspaper stamps of 1/2 and 1 centavo fuerte appeared in March 1862.
1859-1861 public debt certificates
The government (Republica de Venezuela) issued certificates on the public debt (deuda publica) that were legal tender and payable to bearer. Many of these issues bore the signatures of respected merchants. Certificates for 8 reales and for 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 pesos were issued under various decrees, the first on October 20, 1859 and the last on January 15, 1861. There were separate issues for Caracas, Carabobo, and Aragua.
1861-1862 Banco de Venezuela
Banco de Venezuela was in operation from November 1, 1861 until November 30, 1862. It was established by the Paez government with a credit from the Treasury, and a capital of $4 million. It was commonly known as "Banco de la Dictadura". It issued promissory notes (vales) of 5 and 50 pesos dated February 1, 1862.
1862 Junta de Recursos
The Junta de Recursos issued notes for 8 reales (one peso sencillo) dated March 1, 1862.
1858-1862 liberty head
Copper (Birmingham mint) dated 1858-1863:
Silver 0900 fine (Paris mint) dated 1858:
1r (real), 17.5 mm, 2300 g
2r (peseta), 23 mm, 4600 g
5r (bamba), 30 mm, 11500 g .
1863 J.A. Paez
The contract with the Paris Mint for coins with the bust of Gen. Paez, finalized November 7, 1862 was rescinded in June 1863, and coins already minted were melted down. Copper 1 and 2 centesimos, and silver 1/2, 1, 2, 4, and 10 reales had been ordered. About 200 pieces of the 10-reales, 38 mm, 10000 g, are thought to have survived.
1865-1871 Venezolano de oro (gold)
Peso fuerte (Venezolano de oro) = 10 Reales (Decimos) = 100 Centavos
The monetary law of June 12, 1865 was based on the gold venezolano (peso fuerte). It provided for a mint and for a coinage with the bust of Bolivar, the Libertador. Proposed gold coins 0900 fine were: a peso fuerte or Venezolano de oro (10 reales) of 1612 g, and its multiples, an escudo (5 pesos fuertes), a doblon (10 pesos fuertes), and a doble-doblon (20 pesos fuertes). Subsidiary silver coins 0800 fine were to be a medio peso (5 reales) of 1250 g, a peseta (2 reales) of 500 g, a real of 250 g, and a medio real of 125 g. There would be a copper centavo of 800 g. The need for a uniform national coinage was great, but the economic situation was unfavorable and it proved impossible to erect a mint at this time. Foreign coins were given new ratings.
The currency in circulation was generally in poor condition, and larger sums were weighed rather than counted. A decree of December 3, 1870 ordered all coins accepted by tale, no matter what their condition, but sellers either continued to weigh coins or else they raised prices.
1865 private bank notes
El Banco de Londres y Venezuela, Limitado was established at Caracas January 1, 1865 with a capital of 500,000 sterling. It was liquidated in 1867. It issued notes for "5 pesos sencillos" or "5 dollars currency" , dated January 23, 1865.
1869 treasury notes
Treasury issued notes (billetes de Tesoreria) for 5 pesos under an authorization of January 19, 1869.
1871-1879 Venezolano (gold and silver)
Venezolano = 100 Centavos
Conversion: 1 venezolano = 1 fuerte (peso fuerte)
On March 29, 1871, all coin in circulation, whatever its condition, was declared legal tender so long as one of the two sides was clearly legible, A monetary law of May 11 then established the venezolano of 100 centavos as money of account and adopted the Latin Monetary Union system, based on the silver fuerte (venezolano de plata) of 25000 g, 0900 fine, and the gold venezolano of 16129 g, 0900 fine. The 20-venezolano gold piece was named the Bolivar. Coins were ordered from Paris; foreign coin was to remain in circulation until they arrived. New ratings were published July 2. From January 1, 1872 all accounts had to be converted and expressed in venezolanos and centavos.
On February 13, 1874 the circulation of coin worn on both sides was prohibited and a new table of ratings for foreign coin was published. When the coinage of 1873-1874 was released, the circulation of all mutilated and worn coin was prohibited . Worn coin was withdrawn and sent to Paris to be reminted. The export of national gold coin was prohibited May 3, 1875, and the import of foreign silver coin was prohibited June 28, 1876.
Postage stamps for 1, 5, 10, 30, 50, 90 centimos or centesimos and for 1, 3, and 5 venezolanos appeared in 1879.
Compania de Credito was created December 9, 1870 by Gen. Antonio Guzman Blanco. It was privately owned with minority government participation, created in order to pay off outstanding government debts. Guzman increased central government power by virtually privatizing customs collection through this institution. It issued notes to bearer for 5, 10, 50, and 100 venezolanos until it was liquidated in July 1876.
Banco de Caracas was founded in July 1876, reorganized on August 11, 1877, and dissolved on March 27, 1881. It issued notes for 5, 20, and 100 venezolanos.
The province of Guayana (Estado de Guayana) issued local notes in 1878-1880 for 50 centesimos and 1, 2, 4, and 8 venezolanos.
Main article: Coins of the Venezuelan venezolano
The government ordered subsidiary silver coins of 5, 10, 20, and 50 centesimos de venezolano from Paris, June 11, 1873. The inscription on Venezuelan coinage was changed to "Estados Unidos de Venezuela" (from "Republica de Venezuela"). Desire-Albert Barre engraved the dies. An order for gold coins was placed, September 16, 1874, originally for 1, 5, 10, and 20 venezolanos. This order was subsequently replaced by one for a silver 1 venezolano and a gold 5 venezolanos.
The coinage of 1858 had been very limited. The coinage of 1873-1877 marked the establishment of a true, modern national coinage.
On June 14, 1876, the Minister of Finance ordered coins of 75% copper and 25% nickel for 1 and 2-1/2 centesimos de venezolano from the United States to replace copper centavos. They were minted at Philadelphia.
1879-1887 Bolivar (silver)
Bolivar (Bs.) = 100 Centimos
Conversion: 5 bolivares = 1 venezolano (peso fuerte); 1 bolivar = 20 centavos (de venezolano)
Gen. Guzman Blanco returned to power on February 26, 1879 and immediately continued with his 1871 program to replace foreign coin in circulation by a national coinage. His monetary law of March 31, 1879 was based on the principles of the Latin Monetary Union. The basic monetary unit was the bolivar de plata, obligatory from July 1, 1879. Copper was eliminated completely, replaced by cupronickel. A coinage limit of Bs.6 per head was set.
Coins produced in Brussels and dated 1879 were put into circulation between November 1879 and October 1880. Postage stamps appeared January 1, 1880 in denominations of 5, 10, 25, and 50 centimos and 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 25 bolivares.
A modern, national mint was finally inaugurated at Caracas on October 16, 1886. The import of foreign coin was then prohibited. Foreign silver was withdrawn from circulation and recoined.
Banco Comercial was established at Caracas July 20, 1882 and began operations August 1883, issuing notes for 20, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 bolivares. Banco de Carabobo was established in December 1883 at Valencia by Domingo Olvararria, issuing notes for 20, 30, 100, and 500 bolivares. In 1890, Banco Comercial was reorganized as Banco de Venezuela, which then bought out Banco de Carabobo.
Banco de Maracaibo was founded July 20, 1882 by the Sociedad de Mutuo Auxilio de Maracaibo as a merchant bank without any links to the government. It began issuing notes in 1883 for 20, 50, 100 bolivares, adding a 400 in 1917. It issued notes of a new design for 20, 100, and 500 bolivares in 1926, and continued until the notes of private banks were abolished in 1940.
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When the 1/4 bolivar (0.25) was issued in 1894, the 1/5 (0.20) was recalled and many were melted down.
The 5 bolivares dated 1879-1889 has "28 DE MARZO DE 1864" in the ribbon (reverse).
The 1/2, 1, 2, and 5 of Type 1879 continued to be minted until 1936. The gold 20 was last minted in 1912.
1887-1930 Bolivar (gold)
Bolivar (Bs.) = 100 Centimos
The monetary law of June 2, 1887 made gold an unlimited legal tender. Full-bodied silver was legal tender to 500 bolivares, subsidiary silver (0835 fine) to 50 bolivares, and nickel and copper to 20 bolivares. The bolivar was defined as equal to the gold franc or peseta, 290322 mg fine gold . The gold standard came into full operation in 1910.
The decade (1888-1899) after the fall of Guzman Blanco was one of civil strife that exhausted the national treasury. The urgent need for small change in 1893 was met by ordering small denomination silver from Paris and then nickel coins from Berlin. The coins ordered from Berlin, May 25, 1896, were the same type, diameter, and weight as thse of 1876-1877, only the denomination differing, the new 5 centimos being equal to the old centavo (and it was often called a centavo).
Restrictions were placed on gold export in 1914, but banknotes never ceased being convertible into gold domestically. After war began, the exchange rate on New York depreciated slightly, but soon went to a premium. In April 1918 the US dollar cost only 432 bolivares. The monetary law of June 24, 1918 confirmed the bolivar de oro as equal to 290323 mg fine gold. The exchange rate continued moving up and down, and did not stabilize until January 1924, after which the exchange rate remained around par.
Banco de Venezuela Sociedad Anonima was reorganized from Banco Comercial, absorbing Banco de Carabobo. It began operations August 18, 1890. As the government's main creditor, it wielded considerable economic and political power. It issued a large volume of notes that gained national acceptance, Its 1890 notes were for 20, 40, 100, 500, and 1000 bolivares. A 50 was added in 1897 and the colors of the other denominations were changed. New designs of the 10, 100, and 500 appeared in 1907, with a new 1000 in 1926. The bank ceased issuing in 1940.
Various commercial groups led by H.L. Boulton y Cia created a rival bank, Banco Caracas (unrelated to previous banks of that name), which issued notes from 1893 until 1940 in denominations of 20, 100, 400, and 800 bolivares, with a 10 added in 1914.
Banco Comercial de Maracaibo began issuing in 1916, Banco Venezolano de Credito in 1925, and Banco Mercantil y Agricola in 1926. All three of these banks issued notes for 10, 20, and 100 bolivares until 1940.
Bolivar coins dated 1893-1938:
Cupronickel dated 1896 (Berlin) and 1915-1938 (Philadelphia):
12-1/2c, 23 mm, 5000 g
Silver 0835 fine:
50c, type 1879, 18 mm, 2500 g
Bs. 1, type 1879, 23 mm, 5000 g
Bs. 2, type 1879, 27 mm, 10050 g
Bs. 5, type 1893 with "13 de Abril de 1864" in ribbon (reverse), 37 mm, 25000 g
Gold 0900 fine:
Bs. 20, type 1879, 21 mm, 64516 g .
Gold 0900 fine, new (depreciated) standard:
Bs. 10, type 1930, 19 mm, 22258 g (05 million 1930).
1930-2008 Bolivar (paper)
Bolivar = 100 Centimos
The bolivar went off the gold standard in 1930. In August 1934 the official rate was fixed in terms of the US dollar at 3915 bolivares per, adjusted to 318 per April 27, 1937. Gold coin disappeared from circulation.
Banco Central de Venezuela was created by Congress on July 13, 1939 (effective September 8). It began operations in October 1940, at which time there were six note-issuing banks . The notes of the private banks were withdrawn during 1941 .
A system of multiple exchange rates was adopted July 23, 1942, with an official rate of 335 per US$1, which became its parity with the International Monetary Fund in 1947. A system of multiple exchange rates was adopted in 1948, the rates ranging from 309 to 480 per US dollar, and there was a black market. The black market reached a low of 498/US$1 in May 1961. IMF parity was revised to 445 per US dollar January 18, 1964.
The various monetary laws from July 12, 1945 on continued to define the monetary unit as the gold bolivar (bolivar de oro) of 290.323 mg pure gold. It was only October 30, 1974 that the monetary unit was defined simply as "bolivar", with no reference to gold.
The bolivar was a very stable currency for a decade after 1964, but by the early 1980s it was in serious trouble. A peg to the US dollar at 1450 bolivares did not halt the slide. Neither peg, nor crawling peg, nor managed float could keep the bolivar exchange rate under control. It went from 47 per dollar in 1990 to 177 in 1995, to 680 in 2000, and to 2090 in 2005.
Banco Central de Venezuela released its first notes in December 1940, 50, 100, and 500 bolivares, printed by American Bank Note Company. A 20 was added in 1941 and a 10 in 1945.
Notes of a new design by Thomas de la Rue for 10, 20, 50, and 100 bolivares appeared in 1952, but the rather crude portrait of Bolivar was so unpopular that the bank returned to the 1940 design (but with the newer national arms).
Thomas de la Rue redesigned the portrait on its notes and these began appearing in circulation in 1960. Eventually there were five denominations: 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100.
Banco Central released a 5-bolivares note commemorating the 400th anniversary of the founding of Caracas in 1567.
Beginning in 1971, Banco Central began releasing notes of a more modern, non-traditional design in denominations of 10, 20, 50, 100, and 500 bolivares, printed by different printers. There were several minor design modifications between 1971 and 1980, and higher denominations were added: a 1000 in November 1991, a 2000 and a 5000 in September 1995, and a 10,000 in 1998. Meanwhile, three commemorative notes were released: a 100 in 1980 for the 150th anniversary of Simon Bolivar's death, a 50 in 1981 for the 200th anniversary of the birth of Andres Bello, and a 20 in 1987 for the 200th anniversary of the birth of Rafael Urdaneta.
When the value of the metal in nickel-alloy coins exceeded face value, the coins began disappearing (and were completely gone by the time the metal was worth more than twice face in 1989). The severe shortage of change that resulted was met by issuing bank notes for 1, 2, and 5 bolivares.
The change in official name to Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela resulted in a change in the text on bank notes. Denominations with the new name were the 1000, 2000, 5000, and 10,000. A 20,000 was added in 1999 and a 50,000 in 2002.yo yo my mane is *****
Brass dated 1944:
12-1/2c, 19 mm, 5.000 g (08 million);
Cupronickel dated 1945:
12-1/2c, 19 mm, 5.000 g ;
Silver 0.835 fine, dated 1944-1948:
50c, 18 mm, 2500 g ;
Bs. 1, 23 mm, 5000 g (8 million 1945);
Bs. 2, 27 mm, 10000 g (3 million 1945).
The inscription on the coinage was changed to Republica de Venezuela.
Copper-nickel dated 1958:
12-1/2c, 23 mm, 500 g (10 million).
Silver 0835 fine, dated 1954-1965:
50c, 18 mm, 2500 g ;
Bs. 1, 23 mm, 5000 g ;
Bs. 2, 27 mm, 10000 g (4 million 1960. 717 million 1965).
Copper-nickel dated 1964-1971:
10c, 21 mm, 400 g (60 million 1971)
12-1/2c (2 million 1969).
Nickel dated 1965-1973:
50c, 20 mm, 3500 g ;
Bs. 1, 23 mm, 5000 g (180 million 1967);
Bs. 2, 27 mm, 8500 g ;
Bs. 5, 31 mm, 15000 g (20 million 1973).
Silver 0900 fine, 1873-1973 centenary of Bolivar's bust on the coinage::
Bs. 10, 39 mm, 30000 g (2 million 1973).
Copper-clad steel dated 1974-1977:
Nickel clad steel dated 1983:
Copper-nickel clad steel dated 1986:
Nickel dated 1977-1988:
25c, 17 mm, 1500 g ;
50c type 1965, 20 mm, 3500 g (50 million 1985);
Bs. 1, 23 mm, 5000 g ;
Bs. 2 type 1967, 27 mm, 8500 g ;
Bs. 5, 31 mm, 15000 g
Nickel-clad steel :
50c, 20 mm, 3500 g ;
Bs. 1, 23 mm, 5000 g ;
Bs. 2, 27 mm, 8500 g ;
Bs. 5, 31 mm, 13300 g .
Nickel-clad steel dated 1998:
Bs. 20, 20 mm, 4300 g (50 million);
Bs. 50, 23 mm, 6600 g (50 million);
Bs. 100, 25 mm, 6800 g (?);
Bs. 500, 285 mm, 8400 g (?).
Nickel-clad steel dated 1999:
Bs. 50, 23 mm, 6600 g (50 million);
Bs. 100, 25 mm, 6800 g (?);
Bs. 500, 285 mm, 8400 g (?)
Nickel-clad steel dated 2000-2004:
Bs. 20, 20 mm, 4300 g ;
Bs. 50, 23 mm, 6600 g ;
Bs. 100, 25 mm, 6800 g .
Zinc-aluminium alloy dated 2001:
Bs.20, 20 mm, 3265 g (20 million).
Zinc-aluminium alloy dated 2002-2004:
Bs. 20, 20 mm, 3265 g ;
Bs. 500, 285 mm, 8400 g (175 million 2004).
Copper-nickel center, copper-aluminium-nickel ring, 2005:
Bs. 1000, 24 mm, 8500 g (150 million 2005).
Since 2008 bolivar fuerte
Bolivar fuerte = 100 Centimos fuertes
Conversion: 1 bolivar fuerte = 1000 old bolivares
The Bolivar fuerte replaced the bolivar on January 1, 2008 at 1 bolivar fuerte for 1000 old bolivares, and old notes will cease to be legal tender on January 1, 2009. In preparation for the conversion, all prices had been expressed in both bolivars and bolivars fuerte since October 1, 2007.
.. . .
, 218 pp.. .
Venezuela's monetary history, including a summary of coinage legislation.
On-line book detailing the history of the Spanish mints in South America.
Detailed information, with images, of all Venezuelan coins and paper money, regularly updated.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Currency of Venezuela