Primera Division Peruana
The Primera Division Peruana (Peruvian First Division) is the first professional division of the Peruvian Football League (Liga Peruana de Futbol) and supervised by the Asociacion Deportiva de Futbol Profesional. This association is supervised by the Federacion Peruana de Futbol. Currently, there are 14 teams in the first division. It is also known as the Copa Cable Magico after its current sponsor, local cable television provider Cable Magico.
Football was played in Peru from the start of the 20th century by British residents where a league of sorts, the Peruvian Championship (Campeonato Peruano), was played in the capital Lima from 1912 to 1921. The Federacion Peruana de Futbol was founded in 1922. The National Football League (Liga Nacional de Football) was introduced, with two unofficial tournaments played in 1926 and 1927, and official F.P.F.-sanctioned tournaments starting the following year. This was still not strictly a national league as only clubs from the Lima and Callao areas could participate, but it was the strongest and the winners were regarded as national champions.
In 1951, the league, previously amateur, turned professional. In 1966 a proper national league, the Decentralized Championship (Campeonato Descentralizado), was introduced with teams from all over the country.
Starting in 1972, many different formats were used, with preliminary metropolitan (Lima area) and a complex network of regional leagues set up to qualify for a final Decentralised Championship to find the national champions, or championship groups following a regular season. An Apertura and Clausura format has been in place since 1997, with two half-year tournaments leading to a playoff final between its winners. With regard to foreign players, Peruvians teams are limited to three players without Peruvian citizenship per game. For each game, the team presents a list of 18 players; 11 on the field and 7 on the bench. In that list, no more than 3 players can be foreign players. This has led some foreign players to become naturalized Peruvian citizens in order to give the "foreign spot" to another player that the club wishes to use.
Traditionally the strongest teams have always been from Lima and include Alianza Lima, Universitario, Sporting Cristal and from nearby Callao, Sport Boys, though since the league has opened up, teams from the other regions have begun to make their presence felt more and more. In particular, a team from Cuzco, Cienciano, has been the only Peruvian team to win international tournaments Copa Sudamericana 2003 and Recopa Sudamericana 2004), though it has yet to win the domestic championship.
First Division: 14 clubs.
*Bottom two relegated to Second Division.
*Champion of Second Division and winner of Copa Peru promoted in their place.
Second Division: 10 clubs.
*Champion promoted to First Division.
*Bottom two dismissed from the league and must re-qualify through Copa Peru.
*These three teams are replaced with the relegated teams from the First Division plus the Copa Peru runner-up.
Copa Peru: Variable number of clubs.
*Series of tournaments across the country (format may vary between league or cup).
*Final round is a cup tournament of 16 teams.
*Champion promoted to First Division, runner-up to Second.
Clubs by titles
As of end of 2007
Half-year titles (1997-present)
As of end of 2007
Segunda Division Peruana
Peruvian Football Federation
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Primera Division Peruana