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Outline of Peru


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The Republic of Peru is a sovereign country located in western South America. Peru is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean.

Peruvian territory was home to the Norte Chico civilization, one of the oldest in the world, and to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty, which included most of its South American colonies. After achieving independence in 1821, Peru has undergone periods of political unrest and fiscal crisis as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.

Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. Its geography varies from the arid plains of the Pacific coast to the peaks of the Andes mountains and the tropical forests of the Amazon Basin. It is a developing country with a medium Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 40%. Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing, mining, and manufacturing of products such as textiles.

The Peruvian population, estimated at 28 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Peru:

General reference


Common English country name: Peru

Official English country name: The Republic of Peru

Common endonym(s):

Official endonym(s):

Adjectival(s): Peruvian


Etymology: Name of Peru

International rankings of Peru

ISO country codes: PE, PER, 604

ISO region codes: See [[ISO 3166-2:PE]]

Internet country code top-level domain: .pe

Geography of Peru

Peru is: a country


* Southern Hemisphere

* Western Hemisphere

** Latin America

*** South America

* Time in Peru

** Time zone: UTC-05

* Extreme points of Peru

** High: Huascaran highest point in the Tropics

** Low: South Pacific Ocean 0 m

* Land boundaries: 7,461 km

2,995 km

1,800 km

1,420 km

1,075 km

171 km

* Coastline: South Pacific Ocean 2,414 km

Population of Peru: 28,750,770 - 40th most populous country

Area of Peru: - 20th largest country

[[:commons:Atlas of Peru|Atlas of Peru]]

Environment of Peru

Climate of Peru

Environmental issues in Peru

Ecoregions in Peru

Renewable energy in Peru

Geology of Peru

* Earthquakes in Peru

Natural regions of Peru

Protected areas of Peru

* Biosphere reserves in Peru

* National parks of Peru

Wildlife of Peru

* Flora of Peru

* Fauna of Peru

** Birds of Peru

** Mammals of Peru

Natural geographic features of Peru

Fjords of Peru

Glaciers of Peru

Islands of Peru

Lakes of Peru

Mountains of Peru

* Volcanoes in Peru

Peru-Chile Trench

Rivers of Peru

* Waterfalls of Peru

Valleys of Peru

World Heritage Sites in Peru

Regions of Peru

Ecoregions of Peru

Main article: Ecoregions in Peru

Administrative divisions of Peru

Main article: Administrative divisions of Peru

Regions of Peru

* Provinces of Peru

** Districts of Peru

*** Populated centers of Peru

* Former regions of Peru

Municipalities of Peru

Regions of Peru

Peru is divided into 25 regions and the province of Lima.

Provinces of Peru
Districts of Peru
Municipalities of Peru

Capital of Peru: Lima

Cities of Peru

Demography of Peru

Main article: Demographics of Peru

Neighbours of Peru

Peru is bordered by:






Government and politics of Peru

Main article: Government of Peru and Politics of Peru

Form of government: presidential representative democratic republic

Capital of Peru: Lima

Census in Peru

Communism in Peru

Decentralization process in Peru

Elections in Peru

* Peruvian electoral system

** Voting in Peru is cumpulsory

* Peruvian presidential elections:   1895 - 1899 - 2000 - 2001 - 2006 - 2011

* Peruvian parliamentary elections:   1978 - 1992 - 2000 - 2001 - 2006 - 2011

Liberalism in Peru

Political parties in Peru

2009 Peruvian political crisis

Political scandals of Peru

Taxation in Peru

Branches of the government of Peru

Executive branch of the government of Peru

Head of state: President of Peru, Alan Garcia

* Vice Presidents of Peru (Peru has 2)

Head of government: Prime Minister of Peru, Yehude Simon

Cabinet: Council of Ministers of Peru

Ministries of Peru

* Ministry of Agriculture of Peru

* Ministry of Economy and Finance of Peru

* Ministry of Defense of Peru

* Ministry of Education of Peru

* Ministry of Energy and Mines of Peru

* Ministry of Environment of Peru

* Ministry of Foreign Commerce and Tourism of Peru

* Ministry of Foreign Relations of Peru

* Ministry of Health of Peru

* Ministry of Housing, Construction and Sanitation of Peru

* Ministry of the Interior of Peru

* Ministry of Justice of Peru

* Ministry of Labor and Promotion of Employment of Peru

* Ministry of Production of Peru

* Ministry of Transportation and Communication of Peru

* Ministry of Women and Social Development of Peru

Legislative branch of the government of Peru

Congress of Peru (unicameral)

* Members of Congress

Judicial branch of the government of Peru

Constitutional Court of Peru - interprets the constitution on matters of individual rights

Supreme Court of Peru - located in the Palace of Justice

* Superior Courts of Justice of Peru preside over the Judicial Districts of Peru

** Courts of First Instance of Peru hold jurisdiction over each province

*** Courts of Peace of Peru each have jurisdiction over a single district

Foreign relations of Peru

Diplomatic missions in Peru

Diplomatic missions of Peru

ChilePeru relations

United States-Peru relations

* CIA activities in Peru

International organization membership

The Republic of Peru is a member of:

Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL)

Andean Community of Nations (CAN)

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

Group of 15 (G15)

Group of 24 (G24)

Group of 77 (G77)

Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

International Criminal Court (ICCt)

International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol)

International Development Association (IDA)

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS)

International Finance Corporation (IFC)

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

International Hydrographic Organization (IHO)

International Labour Organization (ILO)

International Maritime Organization (IMO)

International Mobile Satellite Organization (IMSO)

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

International Olympic Committee (IOC)

International Organization for Migration (IOM)

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (ICRM)

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (ITSO)

International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC)

Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)

Latin American Economic System (LAES)

Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)

Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)

Nonaligned Movement (NAM)

Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)

Organization of American States (OAS)

Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)

Rio Group (RG)

Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) (associate)

Union Latina

Union of South American Nations (UNASUR)

United Nations (UN)

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL)

United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS)

United Nations Operation in Cote d'Ivoire (UNOCI)

United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC)

United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)

Universal Postal Union (UPU)

World Confederation of Labour (WCL)

World Customs Organization (WCO)

World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU)

World Health Organization (WHO)

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)

World Trade Organization (WTO)

Law and order in Peru

Main article: Law of Peru

Capital punishment in Peru

Constitution of Peru

Crime in Peru

* Domestic violence in Peru

Human rights in Peru

* Abortion in Peru

* LGBT rights in Peru

* Freedom of religion in Peru

Law enforcement in Peru

* National Police of Peru

Nationality law of Peru

Military of Peru

Main article: Military of Peru


* Commander-in-chief:

** Ministry of Defense of Peru

*** Joint Command of the Armed Forces of Peru


* Army of Peru

* Navy of Peru

* Air Force of Peru

* Special forces of Peru

Military history of Peru

Military ranks of Peru

Local government in Peru

Regional Governments of Peru

History of Peru

Main article: History of Peru, Timeline of the history of Peru, and

By period

Ancient civilizations of Peru

* Cultural periods of Peru

Inca Empire

Spanish conquest of Peru

Viceroyalty of Peru

Peruvian War of Independence

Guano era in Peru

War of the Pacific

Colombia-Peru War

Ecuadorian-Peruvian war

Internal conflict in Peru

By subject

Agricultural history of Peru

Demographic history of Peru

Economic history of Peru

Homosexuality in ancient Peru

Military history of Peru

By type of event

Massacres in Peru

Culture of Peru

Main article: Culture of Peru

Architecture of Peru

Cuisine of Peru

Ethnic minorities in Peru

Festivals in Peru

Humor in Peru

Languages of Peru

Media in Peru

Metrication in Peru

National symbols of Peru

* Coat of arms of Peru

* Flag of Peru

* National anthem of Peru

* Cockade of Peru (unofficial national symbol)

People of Peru

* Indigenous peoples in Peru

Prostitution in Peru

Public holidays in Peru

Records of Peru

Scouting and Guiding in Peru

World Heritage Sites in Peru

Art in Peru

Art in Peru

Cinema of Peru

Literature of Peru

Music of Peru

Television in Peru

Theatre in Peru

Religion in Peru

Buddhism in Peru

Christianity in Peru

* Roman Catholicism in Peru

** Roman Catholic dioceses in Peru

Hinduism in Peru

Islam in Peru

Judaism in Peru

Sikhism in Peru

Sports in Peru

Main article: Sports in Peru

Football in Peru

* Chile and Peru football rivalry

* Football clubs in Peru

* Football stadiums in Peru

* Peru national football team

Peru at the Olympics

Rugby union in Peru

Surfing in Peru

Economy of Peru

Main article: Economy of Peru

Economic rank, by nominal GDP (2007): 54th (fifty-fourth)

Agriculture in Peru

Banking in Peru

* National Bank of Peru

* Central Reserve Bank of Peru

Communications in Peru

Companies of Peru

Currency of Peru: Nuevo Sol

*ISO 4217: PEN

Economic history of Peru

Energy policy of Peru

Mining in Peru

Oil industry in Peru

Tourism in Peru

Transport in Peru

Peru Stock Exchange

Education in Peru

Main article: Education in Peru''

Infrastructure of Peru

Communications in Peru

* Internet in Peru

* Media in Peru

** Newspapers in Peru

* List of postal codes in Peru

* Telephone numbers in Peru

Energy in Peru

* Electric power in Peru

Health care in Peru

* HIV/AIDS in Peru

Transportation in Peru

* Airports in Peru

* Rail transport in Peru

* Roads in Peru

** Highways of Peru

Water resources management in Peru

* Irrigation in Peru

* Water supply and sanitation in Peru

See also

Index of Peru-related articles

List of Peru-related topics

Iperu, tourist information and assistance

List of international rankings

Member state of the United Nations

Outline of geography

Outline of South America

External links

; Government

Web portal of the Peruvian Government

Directory of Peruvian Government websites

; General reference

BBC country profile of Peru

Encyclopaedia Britannica entry on Peru

Peru web directory

; Other
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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Outline of Peru

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