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Naranjilla


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Solanum quitoense, known as naranjilla in Ecuador and as lulo in Colombia, is a subtropical perennial plant from northwestern South America. The scientific name means "nightshade from Quito", and it is indeed a member of the Nightshade family.

The naranjilla plant is attractive, with large heart-shaped leaves up to 45 cm in length. The leaves and stems of the plant are covered in short purple hairs. Naranjilla are delicate plants and must be protected from strong winds and direct sunlight. They grow best in partial shade.

The fruit has a citrus flavour, sometimes described as a combination of rhubarb and lime. The juice of the naranjilla is green and is often used as a drink.


Classification

Within the genus Solanum, S. quitoense is a part of the leptostemonum clade. Within this clade, S. quitoense belongs to the Lasiocarpa clade. Other species within this clade include: S. candidum, S. hyporhodium, S. lasiocarpum, S. felinum, S. psudolulo, S. repandum and S. vestissimum. (2005): Solanum quitoense. Version of December 2005. Retrieved 2008-SEP-25.

Other plants bear morphological similarity to S. quitoense, but they may or may not be closely related. Some of these plants are: S. hirtum, S. myiacanthum, S. pectinatum, S. sessiliflorum and, S. verrogeneum. Many of these plants, related or not, can be confused with S. quitoense; furthermore Solanum quitoense's physical traits vary from plant to plant, making identification challenging. One characteristic that is unique to S. quitoense is the ring of green flesh within the ripe fruit.The only related fruit to have green flesh is the cultivated variant of Solanum lasiocarpum.

The new growth of this plant is densely covered in protective trichomes. Coloration in the plant's trichomes around the new growth and flowers varies from purple to white. Identification can be difficult for this reason.

Synonyms

This plant has been described under a number of synonyms:

Solanum angulatum Ruiz & Pav.

Solanum macrocarpon Molina

Solanum macrocarpon Pav. ex Dunal in DC.

Solanum nollanum Britton

Solanum quitense Kunth

Solanum quitoense f. septentrionale (R.E.Schult. & Cuatrec.) D'Arcy

Solanum quitoense var. septentrionale R.E.Schult. & Cuatrec.

Agriculture

The naranjilla has been proposed as a new flavouring for the global food industry, but it fares poorly in large-scale cultivation, presenting an obstacle to its wider use. Its fruit, like tomatoes, is easily damaged when ripe, so is usually harvested unripe.. The fruits are found at markets. It is common for locals to make beverages by adding sugar and water to the freshly squeezed fruits. Locals will also add salt to the fresh fruit, cut it into pieces, and eat it .Oscar Acosta, Ana M. Perez, Fabrice Vaillant (2009) Chemical characterization, antioxidant properties, and volatile constituents of naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) cultivated in Costa Rica. Archivos Latinoamericana de Nutricion 59(1): 88-94

Pests & diseases

Pests easily destroy a crop of this species. This limits its use for agriculture. One common type of infection is caused by the root-knot nematode. The ripe fruit can be attacked by fungus fairly easily, so it is often picked unripe to avoid rotting.

Hybrids are an increasingly popular solution to the nematode pest problem. Solanum quitoense has been hybridized with other plants, most commonly with S. sessiliflorum, a plant with similar phenotypic traits. The leaves, flowers and fruits of S. sessiliflorum are similar in form to S. quitoense, but has much larger fruits that are yellow; the resulting hybrids have fruits with yellowish fruit pulp.

Nutrition

Contents of the fruit varies from region to region. These statistics are based on Costa Rican fruit:

These statistics are based on fruits found in Colombia and Ecuador:

External links

PLANTS National Database Reports and Topics SOQU

GRIN/NPGS Taxonomy information Solanum quitoense Lam.

Naranjilla in Fruits of Warm Climates by Morton, Julia F. 1987

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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Naranjilla


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