Music of Colombia
The music of Colombia is an expression of the Colombian culture, which contains diverse Music genres, traditional and moderns according with the features of each geographic region; although it is frequent to find different musical styles in the same region. The diversity in musical expressions found in Colombia can be seen as the result of a mixture of African, native Indigenous, European (especially Spanish) influences, as well as more modern American and Caribbean musical forms, such as Trinidadian, Cuban, and Jamaican.
In a globalised world, many musicians are fusing traditional music with other styles (usually styles from the popular music genres). While this is not necessarily a bad thing, it is no longer traditional music since it is not entirely based on local culture, being influenced by the music that it has been fused with. As a result traditional music tends to be found in a pre-commercial setting. While traditional music continues to evolve today, but generally as a continuation of the music from a pre-globalised culture.
Styles like vallenato and porro were especially influential. When the waltz became popular in the 19th century, a Colombian version called pasillo was created.
Caribbean Region of Colombia
Some of the best known genres are currulao and cumbia. One of the most recognized interpreters of traditional caribbean and afrocolombian music is Toto la Momposina
Cumbia is a mixture of Spanish and African music. The style of dance is designed to recall the shackles worn around the ankles of the slaves. In the 19th century, slavery was abolished and Africans, Indians and other ethnic groups got a more complete integration in the Colombian culture.
Cumbia is a complex, rhythmic music which arose on Colombia's Atlantic coast. In its original form, cumbia bands included only percussion and vocals; modern groups include saxophones, trumpets, keyboards and trombones as well. It evolved out of native influences, combining both traditions. Some observers have claimed that the dance originally associated with iron chains around the ankle. Still others believe it is a direct import from Guinea, which has a popular cumbe dance form.
Cumbia's form was solidified in the 1940s when it spread from the rural countryside to urban and middle-class audiences. Mambo, big band and porro brass band influences were combined by artists like Lucho Bermudez to form a refined form of cumbia that soon entered the Golden Age of Cumbia during the 1950s. Discos Fuentes, the largest and most influential record label in the country, was founded during this time. Fruko, known as the Godfather of Salsa, introduced Cuban salsa to Colombia and helped bring Discos Fuentes to national prominence by finding artists like La Sonora Dinamita, who brought cumbia to Mexico, where it remains popular.
It is worth pointing out that the "classic" cumbia known throughout Colombia is the Cumbia Cienaguera. This song reflects a uniquely Colombian feel known as "sabor" (flavour) and "ambiente" (atmosphere). Arguably, this song has remained a Colombian staple through the years and is widely known as Colombia's unofficial national anthem. Some artist are Los Hispanos, Los Graduados, Los Black Stars, Los Golden Boys, Los Teen Agers, and Los Corraleros De Majagual.
Salsa music was born among Puerto Ricans and Cubans but soon spread to Colombia. Native salsa groups like Fruko y sus Tesos and Discos Fuentes emerged. Artists like Joe Arroyo followed, inventing a distinctively Colombian form of salsa. Other influential Colombian salsa musicians include Cristian Del Real "The Timbal Genius", Grupo Niche, Alquimia, La Misma Gente, Los Titanes, Los Nemus del Pacifico, Orquesta Guayacan and Grupo Gale. It was in the city of Cali in South-West Colombia that Salsa had the greatest impact. In the 1980s many local Salsa bands and special bars and clubs dedicated to playing classic Salsa records began to flourish the most popular of which being 'Juanchito', where the best dancers would show off their new moves. Also the way Salsa is danced in Colombia is very different from their Cuban and Puerto Rican counterparts adopting a side-side basic step as opposed to a forward and back basic step the islanders use. Nowadays the Cali Salsa dancing style is revered on the international arena as one of the hardest and most energetic, displaying fast complicated footwork. Recently Colombian dancers have become World Champions year after year and the style is becoming more popular and admired among Salsa professionals worldwide; with two of the most prominent salsa schools being Swing Latino driven by the dance choreographer Eduardo 'El Mulato' Hernandez, and Constelacion Latina driven by one of the world's most beloved dancers Jhoanna 'KKO' Agudelo.
Champeta and African-diasporic music
Some Colombian communities, such as Choco, Cartagena and Providencia Island, have large African-descendant communities. Unlike most of the country, cultural mixing with native and European influences have been rare, and, especially in El Choco, music has changed little since being imported from West Africa. Providencia Island is also home to a type of folk music which is closely related to mento, a Jamaican folk form. Most influentially, however, is the city of Cartagena and its champeta music which has been influenced by soukous, compas and raggae. Champeta musicians have included Luis Towers, El Afinaito, El Sayayin, El Pupy and Boogaloo, while others, like Elio Boom, have incorporated Jamaican raggamuffin music to champeta.
Another noteworthy band is BIP, who originally did champeta music and currently are doing reggaeton, without leaving behind their champeta roots.
Porro bands are an enthusiastic form of big band music that came from Sucre, Cordoba and Sabana de Bolivar. The brass ensembles are modeled after European military bands. Influential porros include La Orquestra Lucho Bermudez, Matilde Diaz, Pacho Galan, Banda de 11 Enero,La Sonora Cordobesa, La Sonora Cienaguera, Orquesta Climaco Sarmiento and Pedro Laza y sus Pelayeros.
Vallenato arose in Valledupar on Colombia's Atlantic Coast and only gained popularity elsewhere in the country in the 1980s. Its origins are shrouded in mystery but are said to have begun with Francisco el Hombre, who allegedly defeated Satan in a musical contest. Based around the accordion, vallenato has long been connected with cumbia. Influential artists include Alejo Duran and, more recently, Alfredo Gutierrez and Lisandro Meza. In addition to the accordion, the bass guitar has been a common part of vallenato ensembles since it was introduced by Caliya in the mid-1960s. The most recent modernization of vallenato occurred in 1993 when Carlos Vives released Clasicos de la Provincia, which made him into a star and changed the face of vallenato.
Vallenato has spawned several subgenres, including vallenato-protesta, which is known for socially aware lyrics, and charanga vallenata, which was invented by Cubans in the United States like progenitor Roberto Torres.
Other Caribbean Genres
Pacific Region of Colombia
This is one of the most African influenced-styles in all of Colombia, and has its roots among the Afro-Colombian/African-descendant/Black people of the Pacific coast.
In its most basic form, the currulao is played by a group of four musicians.
One musician plays a 6-8 rhythm on a drum known as a "cununo", which superficially resembles the "alegre" drum (used in Cumbia) to the untrained eye, but is narrower and taller. The Currulao rhythm is created by both striking the skin of the drum with the one's hand and tapping the side of the drum with a small stick.
The second musician keeps time on a shaker known in parts of Colombia as a "guasa"(goo-ah-SAH) or "guache"(goo-AH-cheh), which is typically a hollow cylinder made of metal, wooden, or guadua bamboo, filled with light seeds, rice is sometimes used in home-made guasas.
But the main instrument of the currulao style is perhaps the colombian marimba, a wooden xilophone which resembles the african balafon also for the style of playing.
Many groups in Colombia perform this traditional style of music. Currently, the most renowned groups include Grupo Socavon, Grupo Gualajo, and Grups Bahia Trio. A well renowned figure among the old marimbero masters in Colombia is Baudilio Cuama Renteria from Buenaventura Colombia.
In the United States two Colombian Bands performing this genre with authentic traditional instruments are La Cumbiamba NY, on the east coast (New York), and Aluna Band in the west coast (San Francisco)
Other Pacific Genres
Andarele o Amanecer
Chigualo o Guali
Pango o Pangora
Saporrondon o Sapo-Rondo
Andean Region of Colombia
Bambuco is an indigenous form of music with European influence, sometimes known as Musica del interior. Bambuco is said that it is originated from the Muisca Indians due to it sad and slow rhythm. Its popularity has long been, but was extremely popular across Colombia from the mid-1920s to the late 1930s. Artists include Estudiantina, Los Carranguerros De Raquira, Jaime Llano Gonzalez, Jorge Villamil, and the Morales Pino Trio.
Other Andean Genres
Orinoquia Region of Colombia
Musica llanera is a harp-led genre of music from Los Llanos popular throughout Colombia. It includes the traditional joropo musical style, and is known for verbal contests called contrapunteo. Artists in this genre include Alfredo Rolando Ortiz (born in Cuba), Alma Llanera (band), Grupo Cimarron (band), Luis Ariel Rey, Carlos Rojas, Sabor Llanero, Arnulfo Briceno, and Orlando Valdemarra. This particular type of music is also popular in Venezuela due to the shared llanos. It is considered to be the national music of Venezuela.
Other Orinoco region genres
Mona or Mono
Perro de Agua
Insular Region (Colombia)
Colombian Rock music
In the late 1950s, Mexican rock artists like Enrique Guzman and Cesar Costa became very popular in Colombia. Soon, native rock bands like Los Speakers and The Flippers gained a wide following. Starting in 1967 (see 1967 in music), native bands like Genesis (unrelated to the more famous band Genesis of a similar same name) fused native musical forms (like cumbia) with rock. Rock in Colombia gained great popularity during the 80's with the arrival of bands such as Soda Stereo (Argentina), Los Prisioneros (Chile), and Hombres G (Spain). During the 90's, many punk and heavy metal bands appeared in Bogota, Medellin, and Cali. Colombia has possibly the biggest underground, hardcore, metal and punk movement of the continent, and is know in Latin America as the "punk corner". Aterciopelados, Kraken and Masacre are some of the most important Colombian rock bands. The music event Rock at the park in October, celebrated yearly in Bogota is the largest free Rock festival in Latin America; around 100 bands playing their music along 3 days and 400,000 people in attendance. Currently, Doctor Krapula, a rock band with strong ska influences that is known for making covers of traditional Latin American songs, enjoys great popularity. The most popular Colombian Rock band outside of Colombia is The Monas, winners of a Billboard Award and Mick Jagger's favorite Latin Rock Band. Aside from playing to sold out crows from New York to Los Angeles, They played at SXSW festival in Austin, TX and to fifty thousand people at the Latin Grammys in L.A. The Monas have played with Rage Against The Machine, Iggy Pop, The Presidents of The United States of America, Bowling for Soup, La Secta, Lucybell and others. They are currently working on their second album and their first tour ever in Colombia 2009. Other popular and interesting bands are The Hall Effect who make English pop/rock linked with britpop influences, Divagash electronic soft-rock, La Pestilencia post-hardcore, Bajo Tierra modern punk. But, possibly, the most successful "indie" band is Sidestepper, with its fusion of Colombian traditional music, electronic and African rhythms, who already appeared in Coachella Festival in 2006. Some musical groups in the death metal genre are Carnivore Diprosopus, Mindly Rotten, Suppuration, Sourpuz, and Amputated Genitals.
Bogota is an electronic music city too, with a lots of concerts and raves, just as in Barcelona or L.A.
Colombian Pop music
This musical genre has been growing recently with artists like Fonseca, San Alejo, Lucas Arnau or Mauricio y Palo de Agua. Pop with strong traces of traditional Colombian music is also rising currently, Los De Adentro and Maia representing this trend.
Many Colombian artists are recognized internationally including among others:
Shakira Mebarak is the most recognized Colombian artist. After the success of her album Pies Descalzos in 1993, Shakira began working with producer Emilio Estefan Jr. and recorded Donde Estan los Ladrones? which sold millions world wide. Proving herself as more than a "studio pop-diva" in her MTV Unplugged presentation, Shakira went on to make an English album Laundry Service which debuted at 3 in the Billboard Charts of the USA.
Her most successful songs are ''Hips Don't Lie, which sold over 10 million copies and downloads worldwide, topped in over 70 countries 1, and the new song "She Wolf"
She is winner of 2 American and 7 Latin Grammies. 2008, Shakira was nominated for a Golden Globe.
Singer-songwriter Juanes swept the Latin Grammys in 2003 with his album Un Dia Normal'' which has become very popular in the US and Europe.
Colombian Urban and Hip-Hop Music
Hip Hop came to Colombia in the early 1980s when a few US Hip-Hop tracks by NWA and MC Hammer spurred a break-dancing fever among the young of the less privileged areas of major cities such as Medellin, Cali and Bogota. Towards the end of this decade groups began to form, eventually leading to complete album productions in the mid 1990s. La Etnnia and Gotas de Rap were two of the various Hip-Hop groups that emerged and are widely considered as the pioneers of Colombian Rap. Promoting a very independent style, both groups expressed extreme political and social views, protesting violence, corruption, inequality and hardships in the marginalized regions of Colombia. Then Asilo 38 from Cali come onto the scene with the albums 'La Hoguera' and 'La Descarga' presenting a more commercial and polished sound, while still retaining strong socio-political messages.
Its about this time that Reggaeton from Puerto Rico surges in popularity and Hip-Hop in Colombia takes a back seat for a while as artists try their hand at the new controversial sound. Artist(s) such as Tres Pesos and J Balvin establish themselves in this genre and hits such as 'Baila (Negra de trasero grande)' by 'Leka el Poeta' and the explixcitly worded 'La Quemona' and 'Micaela' by Master Boy take the country by storm. Even the first ever Colombian 'X Factor' in 2006 produces a Reggaeton singer called Farina Pao Paucar Franco who places third in the competition.
Reggae has always been popular in the Colombian Caribbean islands of San Andres and Providence and Spanish Reggae from Panama has helped to strengthen the movement of Reggae artists in the Colombian interior. Artists such as Voodoo Soul Jah, Nawal and Alerta Kamarada (Colombian representatives in the Jamaican Reggae festival) are currently spearheading this ever more popular genre in Colombia.
2006 brings a renaissance in Colombian Hip-Hop in the form of Afro-Colombian group Chocquibtown, fusing traditional rhythms and instruments from their native lands in the Colombian Pacific into their sound. Already hailed as the new phenemomenon in Colombian Hip-Hop, their popularity is ever increasing and making way for other Urban artists to emerge. On the international stage Aztek Escobar based in Houston, Tres Coronas based in New York, Adassa based in Miami and 3 of the seven-man group of Culcha Candela in Berlin, Germany are representing Colombian urban music worldwide.
Glossary of Colombian music
Burton, Kim. "El Sonido Dorado". 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 2: Latin & North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific, pp 372385. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0
A small trip through Colombian music A small trip through the music of the natural regions of Colombia including pictures of the different instruments and music samples.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Music of Colombia