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Flora of Colombia



The Flora of Colombia is characterized by a high biodiversity, with the highest rate of species by area unit worldwide. Over 130.000 species of plants have been described within Colombian territory.

National flower of Colombia

The national flower of Colombia is the orchid Cattleya trianae which was named after the Colombian naturalist Jose Jeronimo Triana. The orchid was selected by botanist Emilio Robledo, in representation of the Colombian Academy of History to determine the most representative flowering plant of Colombia. He described it as one of the most beautiful flowers in the world and selected Cattleya trianae as National symbol

National Tree of Colombia

The national tree of Colombia is the palm Ceroxylon quindiuense (Quindio Wax Palm) which was named after the Colombian Department of Quindio where is located the Cocora valley, only habitat of this restricted range specie. The Wax palm was selected as the national tree by the government of Belisario Betancur and was the first tree officially declared as protected specie in Colombia. C. quindiuense is the only palm that grows at high altitudes and is the tallest monocot in the world.

Endemisms

Colombia has the largest amount of endemisms (species that are not found naturally anywhere else) worldwide. About 10% of the species in the world live in Colombia. Some determinant factors In the distribution range of the species are the weather conditions, temperature, humidity and sunlight availability.

Endemics can easily become endangered or extinct due to their restricted habitat and vulnerability to the actions of man, including the introduction of new organisms.

Ecoregions with high endemism

According to the colombian Ministry of Environment, the following ecoregions have the highest percentage of botanic endemisms:

Colombian Amazon basin

Catatumbo River basin

Mid Magdalena river basin

Pacific coastal region

Tree species

Many of the colombian trees are endangered species due to the high quality of the woods and timber industry explotation (such as Colombian oak Quercus humboldtidiana and colombian mahogany) and as source of tanning substances for the leather industry (such as mangrove and Encenillo tree Weinmannia tormentosa).

Some tree species described in Colombia are:

Anadenanthera peregrina

Amazon Grape

Adenolisianthus arboreus

Aiouea angulata

Anthodiscus montanus

Astrocaryum triandrum

Attalea septuagenata

Bactris coloniata

Banara ibaguensis

Blakea granatensis

Bonnetia holostyla

Bulnesia carrapo

Brazil Nut

Borojoa patinoi

Caryocar nuciferum

Caryodaphnopsis cogolloi

Casearia megacarpa

Coccothrinax argentata

Cryosophila kalbreyeri

Cyathea incana

Cyrilla

Chelyocarpus dianeurus

Cherimoya

Dendropanax colombianus

Esenbeckia alata

Feijoa

Guaiacum officinale

Garcia nutans

Gonolobus condurango

Graffenrieda grandifolia

Hirtella enneandra

Huberodendron patinoi

Hampea thespesioides

Henriettella goudotiana

Humiriastrum melanocarpum

Itaya amicorum

Macrosamanea consanguinea

Neosprucea sararensis

Platonia

Quararibea asterolepis

Quararibea cordata

Ouratea tumacoensis

Reinhardtia

Simaba cedron

Syagrus smithii

Tessmannianthus quadridomius

Trigonobalanus excelsa

Flora genera

Abarema

Abarema callejasii

Abarema ganymedea

Abarema josephi

Abarema killipii

Abarema lehmannii

Acidocroton

Acidocroton gentryi

Aiphanes

Aiphanes acaulis

Aiphanes duquei

Aiphanes leiostachys

Aiphanes lindeniana

Aiphanes linearis

Aniba

Aniba novo-granatensis

Aniba rosaeodora

Aniba vaupesiana

Brownea

Brownea santanderensis

Browneopsis excelsa

Brunellia

Brunellia almaguerensis

Brunellia antioquensis

Brunellia boqueronensis

Brunellia elliptica

Brunellia farallonensis

Brunellia macrophylla

Brunellia occidentalis

Brunellia penderiscana

Brunellia racemifera

Brunellia rufa

Brunellia subsessilis

Calatola

Calatola columbiana

Centronia

Centronia brachycera

Centronia mutisii

Ceroxylon

Ceroxylon alpinum

Ceroxylon ferrugineum

Ceroxylon quindiuense

Ceroxylon sasaimae

Clusia

Clusia croatii

Clusia osseocarpa

Eschweilera

Eschweilera bogotensis

Eschweilera boltenii

Eschweilera integricalyx

Eschweilera integrifolia

Eschweilera pittieri

Eschweilera punctata

Eschweilera rimbachii

Eschweilera sclerophylla

Espeletia

Freziera

Freziera echinata

Freziera euryoides

Freziera jaramilloi

Freziera longipes

Freziera punctata

Freziera retinveria

Freziera sessiliflora

Freziera smithiana

Freziera stuebelii

Freziera velutina

Grias

Grias colombiana

Grias haughtii

Grias multinervia

Guarea

Guarea caulobotrys

Guarea corrugata

Gustavia

Gustavia excelsa

Gustavia foliosa

Gustavia gracillima

Gustavia latifolia

Gustavia longifuniculata

Gustavia monocaulis

Gustavia petiolata

Gustavia pubescens

Gustavia santanderiensis

Gustavia sessilis

Gustavia verticillata

Herrania

Herrania laciniifolia

Herrania umbratica

Huilaea

Huilaea kirkbridei

Huilaea macrocarpa

Huilaea minor

Huilaea mutisiana

Huilaea occidentalis

Huilaea penduliflora

Inga

Inga allenii

Inga coragypsea

Inga goniocalyx

Inga interfluminensis

Inga macarenensis

Inga mucuna

Inga saffordiana

Lennoaceae

Leptolejeunea

Leptolejeunea tridentata

Licania

Licania salicifolia

Macrolobium

Macrolobium pittieri

Magnolia

Magnolia calimaensis

Magnolia calophylla

Magnolia cararensis

Magnolia caricifragrans

Magnolia cespedesii

Magnolia colombiana

Magnolia espinalii

Magnolia georgii

Magnolia gilbertoi

Magnolia guatapensis

Magnolia henaoi

Magnolia hernandezii

Magnolia katiorum

Magnolia lenticellatum

Magnolia mahechae

Magnolia narinensis

Magnolia polyhypsophylla

Magnolia santanderiana

Magnolia urraoense

Magnolia virolinensis

Magnolia wolfii

Magnolia yarumalense

Mayna

Mayna pubescens

Mayna suaveolens

Meriania

Meriania peltata

Meriania versicolor

Metteniusa

Metteniusa cundinamarcensis

Metteniusa edulis

Metteniusa huilensis

Metteniusa santanderensis

Miconia

Miconia poecilantha

Oenocarpus

Oenocarpus circumtextus

Oenocarpus makeru

Oenocarpus simplex

Orphanodendron

Orphanodendron bernalii

Parmentiera

Parmentiera stenocarpa

Passiflora

Passiflora tarminiana

Phytelephas

Phytelephas seemannii

Phytelephas tumacana

Pouteria

Pouteria arguacoensium

Pouteria bracteata

Pouteria chocoensis

Pouteria espinae

Pradosia

Pradosia cuatrecasasii

Prunus

Prunus carolinae

Prunus ernestii

Prunus villegasiana

Rinorea

Rinorea antioquiensis

Rinorea cordata

Rinorea haughtii

Rinorea hymenosepala

Rinorea laurifolia

Rinorea marginata

Rinorea ulmifolia

Rollinia

Rollinia amazonica

Rollinia pachyantha

Rollinia rufinervis

Romeroa

Romeroa verticillata

Schoenocephalium

Inirida flower

Solanum

Solanum sibundoyense

Solanum betaceum (tamarillo)

Sphaerolejeunea

Sphaerolejeunea umbilicata

Streptosolen

Streptosolen jamesonii

Swartzia

Swartzia macrophylla

Swartzia oraria

Swartzia robiniifolia

Swartzia santanderensis

Utricularia

Utricularia neottioides

Utricularia nervosa

Utricularia oliveriana

Utricularia pusilla

Utricularia triloba

Vantanea

Vantanea magdalenensis

Wettinia

Wettinia anomala

Wettinia disticha

Wettinia fascicularis

Wettinia hirsuta

Wettinia kalbreyeri

Xylosma

Xylosma obovatum

Zamia

Zamia amplifolia

Zamia encephalartoides

Zamia montana

Zamia wallisii

Zygia

Zygia lehmannii

Orchid species

Colombia has the largest number of orchids in the world. Among others:

Frondaria

Frondaria caulescens

Restrepia

Restrepia antennifera

Restrepia chocoensis

Restrepia citrina

Restrepia muscifera

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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Flora of Colombia


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