Pelantaro or Pelantaru (from the Mapuche pelontraru or "Shining Caracara") was a toqui or military leader of the Mapuche people during the second Mapuche uprising in 1598. He is credited with the death of the second Spanish Governor of Chile, Martin Garcia Onez de Loyola, during the Battle of Curalaba on December 21, 1598.
This provoked a general rising of the indigenous people associeted with the Mapuche, and they succeeded in destroying almost all of the Spanish settlements south of the Bio-bio River. After this disaster, the following Governor, Alonso de Ribera, fixed a border and took of the suggestions of the Jesuit Luis de Valdivia to fight a defensive war.
At one point, Pelantaro had both the heads of Pedro de Valdivia and Martin Onez de Loyola and used them as trophies and containers for chicha, a kind of alcohol. As a demonstatation of peaceful intentions, he gave them up in 1608.
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