Orongo is a stone village and ceremonial center at the southwestern tip of Rapa Nui (Easter Island). The first half of the ceremonial village's 53 stone masonry houses was investigated and restored in 1974 by American archaeologist William Mulloy. In 1976 Mulloy assisted by Chilean archaeologists Claudio Cristino and Patricia Vargas completed the restoration of the whole complex which was subsequently investigated by Cristino in 1985 and 1995. Orongo enjoys a dramatic location on the crater lip of Rano Kau at the point where a 250 meter sea cliff converges with the inner wall of the crater of Rano Kau. Orongo now has World Heritage status as part of the Rapa Nui National Park.
Until the mid-nineteenth century, Orongo was the center of the birdman cult, which hosted an annual race to bring the first manutara (Sooty Tern) egg from the islet of Motu Nui to Orongo. The site has numerous petroglyphs, mainly of tangata manu (birdmen).
In the 1860s, most of the Rapa Nui islanders died of disease or were enslaved, and when the survivors were converted to Christianity, Orongo fell into disuse. In 1868, the crew of HMS Topaze removed Hoa Hakananai'a from Orongo. This unusual rare basalt moai is now in the British Museum.
Rapa Nui mythology
Mulloy, William. Investigation and Restoration of the Ceremonial Center of Orongo.International Fund for Monuments Bulletin No. 4. New York (1975).
Mulloy, W.T., and S.R. Fischer. 1993. Easter Island Studies: Contributions to the History of Rapanui in Memory of William T. Mulloy. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
Routledge, Katherine Pease (Scouresby). 1919. The Mystery of Easter Island; the Story of an Expedition. London, Aylesbury, Printed for the author by Hazell, Watson and Viney. ISBN 0-932813-48-8 (1998 US reprint)
Official Site for Rapa Nui National Park
Rapa Nui National Park - UNESCO World Heritage Centre
photos of location, Birdman and houses
Hoa Hakananai'a at the British Museum
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Orongo