Caravan of Death
The Caravan of Death was a Chilean Army death squad that, following the Chilean coup of 1973, flew by helicopter from south to north of Chile between September 30 and October 22, 1973. During this foray, members of the squad ordered or personally carried out the execution of at least 75 individuals held in Army custody in these garrisons. According to the NGO Memoria y Justicia, the squad killed 26 in the South and 71 in the North, making a total of 97 victims Caravan of Death, Memoria y Justicia . Augusto Pinochet was indicted in December 2002 in this case, but he died four years later without having been judged. His trial, however, is ongoing since his death, and other militaries and a former military chaplain have been indicted in this case.
The death squad
The squad was made up of several Army officers and two infantrymen. They were led by Army Brigadier General Sergio Arellano, appointed by Augusto Pinochet "Official Delegate of the Commander-in-Chief of the Army and President of the Government Junta." Other members included Arellano's second-in-command, Lieutenant Colonel Sergio Arredondo Gonzalez, later director of the Infantry School of the Army; Major Pedro Espinoza Bravo, an Army Intelligence officer and later operations chief of the DINA secret police; Captain Marcelo Moren Brito, later commander of Villa Grimaldi, the torture camp; Lieutenant Armando Fernandez Larios, later a DINA operative and involved in the assassination of Orlando Letelier (Salvador Allende's former Minister) and others Caravan of Death, Memoria y Justicia .
The group traveled from prison to prison in a Puma helicopter, inspecting military garrisons and then ordering or carrying out themselves the execution of the detainees, the murders being committed with small arms and bladed weapons. The victims were then buried in unmarked graves.
Though the Rettig Commission puts the count of murdered individuals at approximately 3,000 during the 17-year Pinochet dictatorship, the deaths of these 75 individuals and the Caravan of Death episode itself are highly traumatic, especially as many of the victims had voluntarily turned themselves in to the military authorities, were all in secured military custody and posed no immediate threat because they had no history of violence, nor were they threatening to commit any such violence.
According to Oleguer Benaventes Bustos, the second in command at the Talca Regiment when General Arellano landed there on September 30, 1973, the squad's aims where to instill "terror" on potential opponents as well as to insure the loyalty to the new junta of the military staff outside the capital:
Beside the summary executions of tens of opponents, General Arellano punished several military officers for not being "harsh enough" on prisoners, including the constitutionalist officer Lieutenant colonel Efrain Jana Giron in Talca and Army Major Fernando Reveco Valenzuela in Calama . Giron, in charge of Mountain Regiment N 16, was dismissed on September 30, 1973 for "failure to fulfill military duties" and replaced by his second in command, Olagier Benavente Bustos. He then was imprisoned two years in Santiago . Valenzuela, who presided the first Court Martial of Calama, was forced to resign on October 2, 1973, as he was considered too lenient. Transported to Santiago, he was also judged guilty of "failure to fulfill military duties," and subsequently tortured at the Air Force War Academy in Talca and imprisoned for 15 months .
On October 19, 1973, General Joaquin Lagos, commander of the Army 1st Division and zone chief in State of Siege, designed governor of the Province of Antofagasta after the coup, presented his resignation to Pinochet. The day before, the leader of the squad, Arellano, had arrived in his district, and executed 56 persons behind Lagos' back. In some cases, prisoners were sliced with machetes before being gunned. When General Lagos learnt of these murders, he requested a meeting with Pinochet and offered him his resignation. Years later, he explained that he did not return the corpses to the victims' families for burial because he was too
"ashamed" of the barbarous slaughter of the men . According to the NGO Memoria y Justicia, "it is believed that Lagos denunciation brought a halt to the spiral of murders."
Indictment of Pinochet and others
In June 1999, the magistrate Juan Guzman Tapia, who had indicted Augusto Pinochet at his return from London, ordered the arrest of five retired military officers for their part in the Caravan of Death Chile's most famous judge, BBC, 14 December 2004 . Pinochet himself had been indicted by the Spanish magistrate Baltasar Garzon in 1998 after complaints presented by Victoria Saavedra [[:es:Victoria Saavedra]] and the Mujeres de Calama (Calama's Women), which included the Caravan of Death case investigated by Guzman Tapia.
On 23 May, 2000, the Court of Appeal of Santiago lifted his parliamentary immunity concerning this case, and he was indicted by Guzman Tapia, on 1 December, 2000, as co-author of the crimes of aggravated abduction and first degree murder committed by the Caravan of Death against 75 persons. However, as soon as 11 December, 2000, the procedure was suspended by the Court of Appeal of Santiago for medical motives. In January 2001, the physicians stated that Pinochet was suffering from a "light dementia". On 8 March, 2000, the Court of Appeal confirmed Pinochet's indictment in the Caravan of Death case, but only as an "accomplice" and not as its main responsible. However, the judiciary procedures were again suspended on 9 July, 2001 because of alleged health reasons, and finally the Supreme Court invoked in 2002 a "moderate dementia" of Pinochet which enabled him not to be judged in this case .
In March 2006, judge Victor Montiglio ordered the arrest of thirteen former army officers for their participation in the killings on murder charges
In July 2006, the Supreme Court upheld a January 2006 judgment by the Court of Appeal of Santiago, which argued that the 2002 Supreme Court's ruling stating that Pinochet could not be prosecuted in the Caravan of Death case did not apply itself to two of its victims, former bodyguards of Allende .
. On 28 November, 2006, Victor Montiglio, charged of this case, ordered Pinochet's house arrest Procesan a Pinochet y ordenan su arresto por los secuestros y homicidios de la "Caravana de la Muerte", 20minutos, 28 November 2006. Pinochet finally died on December 10, 2006 without having been judged in this case nor any other.
In August 2007, a Catholic priest, Luis Jorquera, then chaplain at a military detention center set up in Chile's north after September 11, 1973, was charged with involvement in the Caravan of Death Chile priest charged over deaths, BBC, 1st September 2007 . Witnesses alleged that he had been involved in the exhuming of the victims two years later, the corpses being then thrown out in the sea from a plane . Jorquera, who is the first priest to be charged with crimes committed during Pinochet's dictatorship, denied these accusations . Beside him, the Court of Appeals in Antofagasta charged eleven other persons of involvement in the Caravan of Death, including Army Gen Miguel Trincado and Army Maj Armando Fernandez Larios .
Jorge Escalante Hidalgo, "La Mision era Matar: El Juicio a la Caravana Pinochet-Arellano,, LOM Ediciones, 2000.
Memory and Justice
Judicial analysis from a Socialist point of view
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Caravan of Death