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Tinku


Tinku is a form of ritual conflict practiced by local people in Potosi, Bolivia. In a local kinship system people are divided to two halves or moieties, which have unequal status. The word "Tinku" belongs to the Quechua language and means encounter, meeting.

Times of the year

Tinku takes place on specified holidays, when the members of moieties, both men and women, fight hand-to-hand with those of the other moiety. In Bolivia, the Tinku is held around the 3rd of May and lasts for a few days. Though the conflict is largely symbolic and ceremonial, the brawl may inflict real, serious physical harm that may sometimes be fatal. Status of a specific moiety is determined by this conflict.

In the Andes, a tinku is a "ritual battle." These battles can be part of "festivities or rites of passages and are often sponsored by political and/or religious authorities (who do not get involved in the fights)."

Types of events that could be included in tinkus:

The "annual or semiannual fighting ritual linked to agricultural fortune"

* The "pasola" on Sumba Island

* The Nahua "tiger fights" in Mexico

Scripted battles

* "Moros y Cristianos" in Spain and Latin America

The Aztec "flower wars"

Groups who participate

Tinkus occur "between different communities, moieties, or kin groups." They are prearranged and usually take place in the small towns of southern Bolivia, like Macha and Pocoata. Tinkus are very festive, with an audience of men, women, and children, who bring food and drink. Alcohol is also brought and sold along with food during the tinku.

Methods of combat

The weapons used during tinkus are traditional or Inca weapons.

Slingshots

Boleadoras

Clubs

Whips

Sometimes horses

The tinkus can become very violent, and people do get injured and even die. But, the deaths can be seen as good omens for good harvests. Because of the violence, police attend tinkus in some places to prevent bloodshed. In other places, tinkus are banned by the government or church because they had become too violent in the past. If someone dies in one of the fights, it is believed by locals that it will be a good harvest that year.

Reasons

Tinkus do not end with trophies or awards. There are different reasons for why tinkus are fought, which include:

The winning side will have a prosperous year.

A person or group is targeted because of past actions.

Groups with old animosity fight for prestige.

Statements of "indigenous peasant autonomy and fierceness versus the dominant or mestizo culture"

History

Tinkus have been a tradition of Andean culture since before they first had contact with Europeans. Some anthropologists hypothesize that Ancient Andean cultures would have tinkus instead of traditional warfare. This would help curb aggression between different groups, and allow for entertainment, similar to football games in the United States. There are some anthropologists who believe the tradition of the Tinku dates back to the time of the Moche culture, where neighboring tribes would annually fight one another.

References

Arkush, Elizabeth and Stanish, Charles. "Interpreting Conflict in the Ancient Andes." Current Anthropology 46.1 (February 2005).

External links

Fotos of the Tinku in Macha and Pocoata/Bolivia

Tinku - Ritual fight - Bolivia

Group Tinkus Cochabamba

Recommended Bibliography

Arnold, Denise. At the heart of the woven dance-floor: the waynu in Qaqachaka. In: Iberoamericana. Lateinamerika-Spanien-Portugal. 16. Jahrgang, Nr. 3/4 (47/48), Vervuert, Frankfurt, 1992.

Arnold, Denise. En el corazon de la plaza tejida. El Waynu en Qaqachaka. In: Anales de la Reunion anual de etnologia. Museo nacional de etnografia y folklore. MUSEF, La Paz, 1992.

Arnold, Denise. Ensayo sobre los origenes del textil andino. En: Anales de la Reunion Anual de Etnologia, MUSEF, La Paz, 2001.

Arnold, Denise. Lopez, Ricardo. Jukumarinti sawurinti: El soso-guerrero y la tejedora. Un repertorio literario de lo masculino y lo feminino en los Andes. Universidad Catolica Boliviana. Revista numero 9 - junio. La Paz, 2001.

Arrueta H., Walter. El Tinku. En: Anales de la Reunion anual de etnologia. Museo nacional de etnografia y folklore. MUSEF, La Paz, 1987.

Arzans de Orsua y Vela, Bartolome. Relatos de la Villa Imperial de Potosi. Seleccion, introduccion y cronologia de Leonardo Garcia Pabon. Plural. La Paz, 2000.

Baumann, Max Peter. Julajulas ein bolivianisches Panflotenspiel und seine Musiker. In: Studia instrumentorum musicae popularis. Band 7, Musikhistoriska Museet, Stockholm, 1981.

Baumann, Max Peter. Tinku zur Fiesta der Begegnung in der Dynamik von Ordnung und Chaos. In: Atencion!, Jahrbuch des Osterreichischen Lateinamerika-Instituts. Band. 2: Von der realen Magie zum Magischen Realismus. Weltbild und Gesellschaft in Lateinamerika. Hrsg.: Mader, Elke. Dabringer, Maria. Frankfurt, 1999.

Corso Cruz, Cristobal. Calendario folklorico y religioso de Potosi. En: Anales de la Reunion anual de etnologia. Museo nacional de etnografia y folklore. MUSEF, La Paz, 1990.

Fernandez Juarez, Gerardo. Tinku y Taypi: Dos recursos culinarios pertinentes en las ofrendas aymaras a la Pachamama. In: ANTHROPOLOGICA. 11. Jahrgang, Nr. 11. Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru. Departamento de Ciencias Sociales. Lima, 1994.

Flores Aguanta, Willer. Calendario de fiestas tradicionales en los ayllus de la Provincia Bustillo. In: Reunion anual de Etnologia 1993. Band 2, Serie Anales de la Reunion Anual de Etnologia. MUSEF, La Paz, 1994.

Flores Aguanta, Willer. Chullpas en el siglo XXI. (Resumen historico del ayllu Chullpa). En: Anales de la Reunion anual de etnologia. Museo nacional de etnografia y folklore. MUSEF, La Paz, 2001.

Flores, Willer. Lopez, Jaime. Plicque, Katherine. Lliqllas chayantaka. Textiles en el Norte de Potosi. En: Anales de la Reunion anual de etnologia. Museo nacional de etnografia y folklore. MUSEF, La Paz.

Marquez Contreras, Juan Carlos. Vargas Mercado, Oscar Pablo. Tinku: Espacio de encuentro y desencuentro. En: Anales de la Reunion Anual de Etnologia, MUSEF, La Paz, 2005.

Mendizabal Nunez, Rene et al. El Tinku en Macha : Violencia ritual y violencia represiva. Cuadernos de investigacion 5. CEPA, Oruro, 1996.

Ordonez Oporto, Luis et al. Primer Simposio Nacional Sobre Revalorizacion Cultural del Tinku. La Paz, Prod. CIMA, um 2003.

Platt, Tristan. Conciencia andina y conciencia proletaria. Qhuyaruna y ayllu en el norte de Potosi. In: HISLA. Revista Latinoamericana de Historia Economica y Social. Band 2. Hrsg.: Bonilla, Heraclio. Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru. Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima, 1983.

Platt, Tristan. Los Guerreros de Cristo. Cofradias, misa solar, y guerra regenerativa en una doctrina Macha (siglos XVIII-XX). ASUR y Plural editores, La Paz, 1996.

Platt, Tristan. Simon Bolivar, the Sun of Justice and the Amerindian Virgin: Andean Conceptions of the Patria in Nineteenth-Century Potosi. In: Journal of Latin American Studies, Vol. 25, No. 1. , pp. 159185.

Sikkink, Lynn. Water and Exchange: The Ritual of "yaku cambio" as Communal and Competitive Encounter. In: American Ethnologist, Vol. 24, No. 1. , pp. 170189.

Stobart, Henry. Primeros datos sobre la musica campesina del Norte de Potosi. En: Anales de la Reunion anual de etnologia. Museo nacional de etnografia y folklore. MUSEF, La Paz, 1987.

Stobart, Henry. The Llama's Flute: Musical Misunderstandings in the Andes. In: Early Music, Vol. 24, No. 3, Early Music from Around the World. , pp. 470482.

Stobart, Henry. Cross, Ian. The Andean Anacrusis? Rhythmic Structure and Perception in Easter Songs of Northern Potosi, Bolivia. In: British Journal of Ethnomusicology, Vol. 9, No. 2. (2000), pp. 6392.

Stobart, Henry. Flourishing Horns and Enchanted Tubers: Music and Potatoes in Highland Bolivia. In: British Journal of Ethnomusicology, Vol. 3. (1994), pp. 3548.

Urrea Bustamante, Fernanda. El tinku como fenomeno y sus manifestaciones duales-antagonicas: Representacion y continuidad simbolica del dualismo andino. Diplomarbeit. Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso. Facultad de Filosofia y Educacion. Instituto de Musica. Valparaiso, 2004.

Valeriano Tula, Emmo. Tinku. Patrimonio Cultural del altiplano central. En: Anales de la Reunion anual de etnologia. Museo nacional de etnografia y folklore. MUSEF, La Paz, 2003

Valeriano Thola, Emmo Emigdio. Musica y danza de Julajula en Venta y Media. En: Anales de la Reunion anual de etnologia. Museo nacional de etnografia y folklore. MUSEF, La Paz'

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