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Barbacoan languages

Barbacoan is a language family spoken in Colombia and Ecuador.

Family division

Barboacoan consists of 6 languages:

I. Northern

A. Awan (also known as Awa)

1. Awa Pit

2. Pasto-Muellama

* Pasto (also known as Past Awa) ' ??

* Muellama ' ??

B. Coconucan (also known as Guambiano-Totoro)

3. Guambiano

4. Totoro (also known as Polindara)

5. Coconuco '

II. Southern ?

6. Caranqui ' ??

7. Chapalaachi

8. Tsafiki

Pasto, Muellama, Coconuco, and Caranqui are now extinct.

Pasto and Muellama are usually classified as Barbacoan, but the current evidence is weak and deserves further attention. Muellama may have been one of the last surviving dialects of Pasto Muellama is known only by a short wordlist recorded in the 19th century. The Muellama vocabulary is similar to modern Awa Pit.

The Coconucan languages were first connected to Barbacoan by Daniel Brinton in 1891. However, a subsequent publication by Henri Beuchat and Paul Rivet placed Coconucan together with a Paezan family (which included Paez and Paniquita) due a misleading "Moguex" vocabulary list. The "Moguex" vocabulary turned out to be a mix of both Paez and Guambiano languages (Curnow 1998). This vocabulary has led to misclassifications by Greenberg , Loukotka (1968), Kaufman , and Campbell (1997), among others. Although Paez may be related to the Barbacoan family, a conservative view considers Paez a language isolate pending further investigation. Guambiano is more similar to other Barbacoan languages than to Paez, and thus Key (1979), Curnow et al. (1998), and Gordon (2005) place Coconucan under Barbacoan. The moribund Totoro is sometimes considered a dialect of Guambiano instead of a separate language, and, indeed, Adelaar & Muysken (2004) state that Guambiano-Totoro-Coconuco is best treated as a single language.

Caranqui was replaced by Quechua, perhaps surviving as late as the 18th century. Caranqui seems to have influenced Imbabura Quechua. There are similarities between Caranqui and Pasto and also between Caranqui and Tsafiki. Caranqui is often classified as Barbacoan but the evidence is not conclusive due its poor documentation.

Genealogical relations

The Barbacoan languages may be related to the Paez language. Barbacoan is often connected with the Paezan languages (including Paez); however, Curnow (1998) shows how much of this proposal is based on misinterpretation of an old document of Douay (1888).

Other more speculative larger groupings involving Barbacoan include the Macro-Paesan "cluster", the Macro-Chibchan stock, and the Chibchan-Paezan stock.

See also

Paezan languages


External links

Ethnologue: Barbacoan

Ethnologue: Paez

Proel: Familia Barbacoana

Proel: Sub-tronco Paezano


Adelaar, Willem F. H.; & Muysken, Pieter C. (2004). The languages of the Andes. Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press.

Brend, Ruth M. (Ed.). (1985). From phonology to discourse: Studies in six Colombian languages . Language Data, Amerindian Series (No. 9). Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Beuchat, Henri; & Rivet, Paul. (1910). Affinites des langues du sud de la Colombie et du nord de l'Equateur. Le Mouseon, 11, 33-68, 141-198.

Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.

Constenla Umana, Adolfo. (1981). Comparative Chibchan phonology. .

Constenla Umana, Adolfo. (1991). Las lenguas del area intermedia: Introduccion a su estudio areal. San Jose: Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica.

Constenla Umana, Adolfo. (1993). La familia chibcha. In (M. L. Rodriguez de Montes (Ed.), Estado actual de la clasificacion de las lenguas indigenas de Colombia (pp. 75-125). Bogota: Instituto Caro y Cuervo.

Curnow, Timothy J. (1998). Why Paez is not a Barbacoan language: The nonexistence of "Moguex" and the use of early sources. International Journal of American Linguistics, 64 (4), 338-351.

Curnow, Timothy J.; & Liddicoat, Anthony J. (1998). The Barbacoan languages of Colombia and Ecuador. Anthropological Linguistics, 40 (3).

Douay, Leon. (1888). Contribution a l'americanisme du Cauca (Colombie). Compte-Rendu du Congres International des Americanistes, 7, 763-786.

Gerdel, Florence L. (1979). Paez. In Aspectos de la cultura material de grupos etnicos de Colombia 2, (pp. 181-202). Bogota: Ministerio de Gobierno and Instituto Linguistico de Verano.

Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (Ed.). (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the world (15th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-159-X. .

Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 13-67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.

Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), ''Atlas of the world's languages(pp. 46-76). London: Routledge.

Key, Mary R. (1979). The grouping of South American languages. Tubingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.

Landaburu, Jon. (1993). Conclusiones del seminario sobre clasificacion de lenguas indigenas de Colombia. In (M. L. Rodriguez de Montes (Ed.), Estado actual de la clasificacion de las lenguas indigenas de Colombia(pp. 313-330). Bogota: Instituto Caro y Cuervo.

Loukotka, Cestmir. (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: Latin American Studies Center, University of California.

Slocum, Marianna C. (1986). Gramatica paez. Lomalinda: Editorial Townsend.

Stark, Louisa R. (1985). Indigenous languages of lowland Ecuador: History and current status. In H. E. Manelis Khan & L. R. Stark (Eds.), South American Indian languages: Retrospect and prospect'' (pp. 157-193). Austin: University of Texas Press.

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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Barbacoan languages

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