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Tucuman is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country. The capital is San Miguel de Tucuman, often shortened to Tucuman. Neighboring provinces are from the north clockwise Salta, Santiago del Estero and Catamarca. It is nicknamed "El Jardin de la Republica" (''The Republic's Garden).
Before the Spanish colonization, this land was inhabited by the Diaguitas and Calchaquies, who practiced agriculture.
In 1533 Diego de Almagro explored the Argentine Northwest, including Tucuman. By 1565 saw the foundation of San Miguel de Tucumanby Diego de Villaroel, and the creation of the Provincia de Tucuman, Juries y Diaguitas, whose first governor was Francisco de Aguirre. San Miguel de Tucuman was refounded in 1685 by Miguel de Salas some 65 kilometres from its first location, in order to avoid the constant attacks of the aboriginal malones.
The local aborigines of the region presented a strong resistance to the Spanish, who decided to move the defeated tribes towards Buenos Aires, being the most famous the case of the Quilmes, who were moved to the city of Quilmes.
Tucuman was a mid-point for shipments of gold and silver from the Viceroyalty of Peru, with important cattle, textile, and wood activities that provided supplies for the convoys on their way to Buenos Aires. Because of its important geographical position, and as head of the civil and Catholic governments it acquired special importance during the 18th century.
The creation of the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata in 1776 meant the end of the convoys from Peru to the port of Buenos Aires. Tucuman, with 20,000 inhabitants by that time, suffered also from the British imports from the newly opened customs of Buenos Aires, no longer under the monopoly of the Spanish Crown.
In 1783 the Intendency of Tucuman was divided and Tucuman was set under the control of the Intendency of Salta del Tucuman, with its centre in Salta.
San Martin arrived to Tucuman in 1813 and installed the Military School. In 1814 the Intendency of Salta was divided into the present provinces.
On July 9 1816, at the Congreso de Tucuman, the Provincias Unidas del Rio de la Plata("United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata") declared their independence from Spain, but internal conflicts delayed the final fusion of the provinces into the Republica Argentina''.
The beginning of the 20th century, with the customs restrictions and the arrival of the railway, brought prosperous economic times for the province, and its sugarcane production. But, the sugar crisis of the 1960s hit strongly Tucuman's economy dependent almost exclusively on the sugar production.
In spite of the small size of Tucuman, its necessary to distinguish two different geographical systems. The east is associated to the Gran Chaco flat lands, while the west presents a mixture of the Sierras of the Pampas to the south, and the canyons of the Argentine Northwest to the north, being the highest peak the Cerro del Bolson with 5,550 meters.
Warm sub-tropical temperatures rein almost all over the province, but the mountain region receives more than 1,500 mm of precipitations per year, in contrast with the 600 mm of the plains. This is due to the effect of the mountains on the humid winds from the Atlantic Ocean that elevate the wind to higher, and thus colder air, forcing the condensation of the humidity and later rain.
It is because of the abundant precipitations that Tucuman has a wide area of abundant vegetation that justifies the title of Jardin de la Republica ("Garden of the Republic").
The Sali is the main river of the province. There are a few dams in Tucuman used for hydroelectricity and irrigation; El Cadillal on Sali River, the most important of the province, Embalse Rio Hondo and Hondo River, La Angostura on Rio de los Sosa River, and Escaba on Marapa River. The Valles Calchaquies are crossed by the Santa Maria River.
The economy of the province is strongly based in the sugarcane, with 2,300 km, and the sugar production, 60% of the country. After the sugar crisis of the 1960s, Tucuman tried to diversify its crops, and now cultivates, among others, lemon (world 1st. productor), strawberry, kiwifruit, beans, maize, alfalfa, and soybean.
Cattle, sheep and goats are raised, but mainly for local consumption.
Besides the industrialisation of the sugarcane into sugar, paper and alcohol, there are food, textile and metallurgic industries. Mining is a minor activity, centred on salt, clay, lime and other non-metallic extractions.
Cultural and sport tourism is common in the province and attracts a number of Argentine tourist every year.
The Panamerican Highway (Route 9) crosses San Miguel de Tucuman and connects it with Santiago del Estero and Buenos Aires. The city also serves as a mid-stop for tourists visiting other provinces of the Argentine Northwest. The Benjamin Matienzo airport receives over half a million visitors per year.
the most visited destinations of the province are the Campo de los Alisos National Park, Valles Calchaquies, Tafi del Valle, Quilmes' Ruins, the Diaguitas' community of Amaicha del Valle, and the city of San Miguel de Tucuman.
There are 3 important universities in Tucuman the Universidad Nacional de Tucuman , the Universidad Tecnologica Nacional UTN - Facultad Regional Tucuman, and the Universidad del Norte Santo Tomas de Aquino.
The province is divided into 17 departments (Spanish departamentos).
Tucuman.gov.ar Tucuman Province Official Website
Tucuman.com Tucuman portal website
Turismo en Tucuman Local Website with tourist information
La Gaceta The most important local newspaper
El Siglo Web Online edition of this local newspaper
Primera Fuente Online webpaper
Tucuman al Dia Online webpaper
Tucuman Diario Online webpaper
Tucuman Noticias Online webpaper
Esto es Tucuman Local webzine about politics, media, general issues, etc.
Universidad Nacional de Tucuman Tucuman State University
Universidad del Norte Santo Tomas Aquino Tucuman Catholic University
Universidad Tecnologica Nacional (Tucuman Campus)
Legion Tucuman Paintball Club
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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Tucuman Province