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Timeline of Argentine history

This is a timeline of Argentine history. To read about the background to these events, see History of Argentina. See also List of Presidents of Argentina, Lists of office-holders and [[:Category:Years in Argentina]].

This timeline is incomplete; some important events may be missing. Please help add to it.

5000 BC–1500 AD

4000 BC Distinct nomadic cultures such as the Yamana emerged in the far south

500 BC Irrigation permitted development of sedentary agriculture of staple crops in western and northwestern Andean region

1 AD Several corn-based civilizations developed in the western and northwestern Andean region

600 Development of metallurgical technologies, permitting elaborate bronzeworks

850 Emergence of fortified urban settlements

1480 The Inca Empire, under the rule of emperor Pachacutec, launched an offensive and conquered present-day northwestern Argentina, integrating it into a region called Collasuyu


1516 Spanish navigator Juan Diaz de Solis first European explorer to visit Rio de la Plata, on territory which is now Argentina; Diaz de Solis killed and supposedly cannibalised by native Charrua, Querandi or Guarani

1526 Sebastian Cabot sailed up Parana River and built short-lived fort near modern Rosario

1536 Santa Maria del Buen Ayre founded by Pedro de Mendoza on site of modern Buenos Aires

1541 Santa Maria del Buen Ayre settlement abandoned after indigenous attacks

1553 Santiago del Estero founded by Francisco de Aguirre (some claim 1550)

1561 Mendoza founded

1562 San Juan founded

1573 Cordoba and Santa Fe founded

1580 Permanent colony re-established by Spain on the site of Buenos Aires as part of the Viceroyalty of Peru; initial settlement was primarily overland from Peru

1582 Salta founded

1591 La Rioja founded

1593 San Salvador de Jujuy founded


1609 First Jesuit missions to the Guarani founded in the Upper Parana area

1622 University of Cordoba founded by Jesuits

1657 Diaguita rebellion led by Spanish rebel, Pedro Bohorquez

1661 San Ignacio school in Cordoba founded by Jesuits

1685 City of Tucuman moved to present location


1767 Jesuits expelled from Spanish territories

1776 Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata (Virreinato del Rio de la Plata) comprising today's Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay, as well as much of present-day Bolivia, declared with Buenos Aires as its capital


1806, 1807 British invasions of the Rio de la Plata unsuccessfully attempt to establish control over Spain's southern colonies as part of the Napoleonic Wars. Spanish troops offer no defence but British repelled by local civilians and militias

May 1810 News of Napoleon's invasion of Spain caused a power vacuum in Buenos Aires leading to a series of events known as the May Revolution:

Secret meetings in May 1810 organised a petition for an open meeting - Cabildo Abierto

The petition was refused by viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros but popular protest forced his hand on 22 May.

The Cabildo opened its session on 22 May with 251 of the city's most prominent citizens, and discussed the future government of the provinces

On 23 May the assembly voted for the removal of the viceroy and the creation of the Primera Junta of locals to govern Buenos Aires, proclaiming loyalty to Ferdinand VII. This was properly agreed and the Junta sworn in on 25 May

December 1810 Junta Grande, with delegates from other provinces of the United Provinces of the River Plate, replaced Primera Junta

1810-11 Unsuccessful military campaigns in Paraguay and Alto Peru failed to gather support for joint action by the entire viceroyalty against Spanish forces

1811 First Triumvirate of Feliciano Chiclana, Juan Jose Paso and Manuel de Sarratea replaced Junta Grande in September 1811

1812 The Jujuy Exodus of August 1812 was led by Manuel Belgrano, with several thousand soldiers and civilians retreating from Jujuy and Salta, to avoid military defeat and defections

1812 Second Triumvirate of Nicolas Rodriguez Pena, Antonio Alvarez Jonte and Juan Jose Paso replaced First Triumvirate

1813 The Battle of San Lorenzo in February first full battle of the Argentine War of Independence

1813 The ''Asamblea del ano XIII called in February to plan further military campaigns and organise defence of Buenos Aires

1814 Action of 14 May 1814 saw United Provinces' fleet defeat Spanish navy securing coast

1814 Second Triumvirate replaced by position of Supreme Director, first occupied by Gervasio Antonio de Posadas

1815 Defeats in battles in late 1815 led to final loss of modern Bolivia

1816 In March an assembly of provincial delegates met as the Congress of Tucuman to discuss future military and political developments

On 9 July 1816, the Congress declared the independence of Argentina

1820 The Battle of Cepeda took place between Unitarians who supported a strong centralised state, and Federals, largely provincial caudillo warlords who wanted decentralised authority. The Federals won and the February 1820 Treaty of Pilar declared Argentina as a federal country, although Unitarian ideals continued


1825 The United Kingdom recognises independent Argentina

1825 Deputies from the eastern bank of the Rio de la Plata declare independence from Brazil, leading to the Argentina-Brazil War. The 1827 Battle of Ituzaingo saw tactical success for Argentina. The war ended in 1828 with a treaty giving independence to Uruguay

1829 Juan Manuel de Rosas became governor of Buenos Aires Province

1830 Yaghan aboriginal Jemmy Button (Orundellico) taken from Tierra del Fuego to England by Robert FitzRoy on HMS Beagle

1831 Pacto Federal signed between provinces to protect federal nature of country

1831-1834 The Voyage of the Beagle with Charles Darwin and Robert FitzRoy visited the Rio de la Plata, Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego

1831 Argentine Governor of the Falkland Islands Luis Vernet is expelled by USS Lexington following his seizure of United States interests. New governor murdered in 1832 mutiny

1833 Argentine state launches a campaign of genocide against the aboriginal peoples under the command of Juan Manuel de Rosas

1833 British forces re-occupy the Falkland Islands

1851 Rosas made Supreme Chief of the Argentine Confederation

1852 Rosas overthrown by Justo Jose de Urquiza following Battle of Caseros

Signature of the San Nicolas Agreement between all provinces but Buenos Aires, Urquiza named Supreme Director

1853 Constitution of Argentina agreed by assembly in Santa Fe, creating modern system of government

1854 Urquiza became first President of Argentina in modern sense but opposed by Buenos Aires, still opposed to federal project

1859 Defeat of Unitarian forces led by Bartolome Mitre by Urquiza and federals at Battle of Cepeda; Buenos Aires re-enters confederation

1861 Mendoza earthquake kills 8,000 to 10,000 citizens of Mendoza

1864 Start of War of the Triple Alliance between Paraguay and the Triple Alliance of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, leading to utter defeat of Paraguay by 1870

1878 Commencement of the genocidal Conquest of the Desert against indigenous inhabitants of the south led by Julio Argentino Roca; final surrender by 1884

1880 Roca became president, finally defeated federals and moved capital to Buenos Aires from Rosario

1890 Founding of the Radical Civic Union (UCR) or Radical Party

1890 The Panic of 1890 brought the Baring Brothers bank in London close to collapse after disastrous investments in Argentina

1895 Mandatory military service (Conscription) established


1912 Saenz Pena Law introduces universal, secret and compulsory male suffrage, end of the Generation of '80

1914 Start of presidency of Hipolito Yrigoyen, UCR democratic reformist

1918 Students strikes and demonstrations enforce the university reform of shared powers between teachers, graduates and students

1927 Fabrica Militar de Aviones aircraft factory founded in Cordoba

1930 Military coup deposed Yrigoyen, starting the 'Infamous Decade'

1931 General Agustin Justo declared winner of Presidency following 'patriotic fraud' in election

1943 'National Revolution' led by nationalist military officers including Colonel Juan Peron; ensured continued non-intervention in World War II

1944 San Juan earthquake destroys provincial capital, kills 10,000

1945 Argentina enters World War II on the side of the Allies and admitted as founding member of United Nations

1945 Peron arrested then freed after major popular protest by those known as the Descamisados

1946 Peron elected President; re-elected to presidency in 1951

1946 Indigenous people march in Malon de la Paz to Buenos Aires to demand land rights

1947 Women's suffrage is approved

1950 First flight of the FMA IAe 33 Pulqui II, the first jet fighter to be entirely developed and built in Latin America and the 6th in the World.

1950 The National Atomic Energy Commission is founded

1952 Death of Eva Peron

1955 Peron ousted in 'Liberating Revolution' military coup

1956 INTA, the National Agricultural Technology Institute, is created

1957 INTI, the National Industrial Technology Institute, is created

1958 ARA Independencia, the first aircraft carrier of the Argentine Navy enter service

1962 Military coup ended presidency of civilian Arturo Frondizi

1966 General Juan Carlos Ongania assumed power and represses political parties

1967 Death of Ernesto 'Che' Guevara

1969 In the Cordobazo popular protests of May 1969, thousands of citizens routed the army and police and took control of Cordoba for two days

1969 A counter-insurgency aircraft, the FMA IA 58 Pucara, flies for the first time

1969 Aircraft carrier ARA Veinticinco de Mayo replaces ARA Independencia

1970 General Alejandro Lanusse emerged as President after Ongania toppled

1970-76 Civil conflict and terrorist attacks, principally by left-wing Montoneros and Ejercito Revolucionario del Pueblo opposed by paramilitary Argentine Anticommunist Alliance

1973 The Ezeiza massacre takes place upon Peron's return from exile, when members of the Triple A open fire on the crowd awaiting him.

1973 Democratic elections brought Peronist Hector Campora to power; Peron elected president in fresh elections later that year

1974 Atucha I nuclear power plant, the first nuclear power plant in Latin America, began operation

1974 Peron died, leaving widow Isabel Martinez de Peron as president

1976 Military coup in March deposed Martinez de Peron

1976 The high-technology company INVAP is created

1976-1983 The Proceso de Reorganizacion Nacional military government led by Jorge Vileda repressed political and armed opposition through use of torture, forced disappearance and extra-judicial killing up of to 30,000 people

1978 Argentina hosted and won the 1978 Football World Cup

1978 December: Argentina - Chile Relations more difficult moment due Beagle Conflict

1982 Leader General Leopoldo Galtieri sent troops to the Falkland Islands triggering Falklands War; British task force retook islands by mid-June

1983 Military government collapsed; election of Radical Raul Alfonsin as president

1984 The Argentina-Chile Peace and Friendship Treaty peacefully ends a centennial border dispute

1984 Embalse nuclear power plant began operations

1984 The trainer aircraft FMA IA 63 Pampa flight for the first time.

1985 La Historia Oficial film won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film

1986 Argentina wins 1986 Football World Cup, captained by Diego Maradona

1987 First uprising by Carapintadas, commanded by Colonel Aldo Rico, two arrested. Alfonsin delares La casa esta en orden (The house is in order)

1988 Second Carapintada revolt, again under Rico's command in January, 300 arrested

1988 Third and last Carapintada uprising, led by Mohammed Ali Seineldin, two arrested

1989 Dissident military group attacks La Tablada regiment, but are finally seized

1989 Hyper-inflation and political turmoil brings Peronist Carlos Menem to power in election

1990-1999 Neo-liberal economic policies and privatisations brought general strikes, hunger strikes and political party realignments

1991 Peso pegged to US Dollar

1991 Argentina is the only Latin American country to participate in the first Gulf War under mandate of the United Nations

1991 Mercosur customs union founded by the Treaty of Asuncion

1991 Argentina, Brazil and Chile signed the Mendoza Declaration prohibiting Chemical Weapons

1992 Israeli Embassy attack in Buenos Aires killed 29 in terrorist attack

1993 Argentina joins UNFICYP mission at Cyprus. As of 2006, ground troops and helicopters are serving there and since 1999 have other Latin American countries troops embedded.

1994 Following the Pacto de Olivos, the constitution reform is agreed, allowing Presidents to serve second consecutive term

1994 Bombing of AMIA Jewish Community Centre in Buenos Aires, killing 85

1994 The murder of Conscript Omar Carrasco led to the abolition of Conscription

1995 Menem won second term

1995 Argentina acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

1995 FMA privatized into Lockheed Martin Aircraft Argentina

1996 Radical Fernando de la Rua elected first Mayor of Buenos Aires

1997 Radicals, left-wing FrePaSo and others joined forces as Alianza electoral alliance to oppose Menem and Peronists

1997 The A-4AR Fightinghawk enter service in the Argentine Air Force

1998 U.S. President Bill Clinton designated Argentina as a major non-NATO ally

1999 De la Rua won Presidency as head of the Alianza, but was confronted by growing economic crisis

1999 In one of the worst accidents in the history of Argentinian aviation, LAPA flight 3142 crash at Aeroparque Jorge Newbery airport resulted in 65 fatalities.

Since 2000

2000 Hitech company INVAP is chosen by Australia to design and construct the OPAL nuclear reactor

2000 Vice-President Carlos Alvarez resigned in protest political bribes scandal, precipitating crisis in ruling alliance

2001 In March, the remaining FrePaSo ministers resigned from government in protest at economic and labour reforms

2001 In November, the government responded to a run on banks by limiting access to bank deposits in the corralito

2001 In December, events that have become known as the Argentinazo took place:

*middle classes, exasperated with constraints of corralito, took to streets in protest in the Cacerolazo

*Trade unions and piqueteros began protests, and shops and businesses were ransacked

*Violent protests and mass demonstrations in the Plaza de Mayo; 26 die in protests nationwide

*Finance minister Domingo Cavallo and President de la Rua resigned in quick succession on 19 and 20 December

*Provincial governor Adolfo Rodriguez Saa appointed president by Argentine Congress on 22 December

*Rodriguez Saa declared a short-lived debt moratorium. After a few days, Argentina officially defaulted on $93 billion of its debt to the International Monetary Fund and creditors

*Rodriguez Saa resigned after a week following lack of support from colleagues

*Eduardo Duhalde, losing candidate in the 1999 presidential elections, appointed president with broad cross-party support

2002 Duhalde imposes further financial measures, including converting dollar accounts to pesos, scrapping 1:1 parity with the dollar, and social measures to bring economy under control

2003 Former President Carlos Menem wins first round of presidential election but pulls out facing certain defeat, handing victory to fellow Peronist Nestor Kirchner

2004 In April more than 100,000 people demonstrated in Buenos Aires in support of Juan Carlos Blumberg, father of murdered student Axel Blumberg, demanding harsher criminal laws

2004 Kirchner pursued Argentine debt restructuring

2004 Natural gas supply shortage produced tension with Chile

2004 Antarctic Treaty Secretariat established in Buenos Aires

2004 A fire in the Republica Cromagnon nightclub in Buenos Aires kills 194 people and injures 714

2005 Relations between Catholic Church and government broke down in February row between military chaplain and minister over abortion

2005 Supreme Court overruled 'Laws of Pardon' that were used to pardon military figures of the Dirty War

2005 First disputes of the Cellulose plant conflict between Argentina and Uruguay

2005 Mid-term elections in October saw a massive split in the Justicialist Party between Kirchner's centre-left Front for Victory faction and the rump of his former patron Duhalde and other provincial leaders; Front for Victory wins by large margin

2005 Massive demonstrations against U.S. President George W. Bush at the Fourth Summit of the Americas in Mar del Plata

2005 In December, Kirchner announced cancellation of IMF debt with single, final payment

2006 Buenos Aires mayor Anibal Ibarra removed from office following accusations of negligence regarding the Republica Cromagnon nightclub fire of 2004

2007 Catholic priest Christian Von Wernich is found guilty of involvement in seven murders and 42 cases of kidnapping and torture related to the state-sponsored Dirty War. Von Wernich is sentenced to life imprisonment.

2007 Cristina Kirchner assumes as new president of Argentina.

See also

Historical exchange rates of Argentine currency


Lopez Levy, Marcela, 2004. We are Millions: Neo-liberalism and new forms of political action in Argentina, Latin America Bureau, London. ISBN 1-899365-63-X

Nouzeilles, Gabriela and Montaldo, Graciela (eds), 2002. The Argentina Reader: History, Culture, Politics, Duke University Press, Durham and London. ISBN 0-8223-2914-X

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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Timeline of Argentine history