Pedro Pablo Ramirez
General Pedro Pablo Ramirez Machuca (1884 - 1962) was President of Argentina from June 7, 1943 to February 24, 1944. He was the founder and leader of the Guardia Nacional, Argentina's Fascist militia Current Biography 1943, p. 608 .
After graduating from the Argentine military college in 1904 as a second lieutenant, Ramirez was promoted in 1910 as first lieutenant of the cavalry. In 1911, he was sent to Germany for training with the Fifth Hussars cavalry in Kaiser Wilhelm's Prussian Army. He returned home in 1913, with a German wife, and prior to the outbreak of World War One. Current Biography 1943, pp. 608-611 . Advancing in rank as a specialist in cavalry tactics, he assisted fellow General Jose Felix Uriburu in a fascist coup that deposed Hipolito Yrigoyen in 1930. Ramirez was sent to Rome to observe Mussolini's army until his return in 1932.
When Uriburu set free elections and was voted out of office, General Ramirez worked behind the scenes to plan a return of fascism to Argentina. Over the next several years, he organized the Milicia Nacionalista (later the Guardia), and authored a program for a state ruled by the militia. In 1942, Ramirez was appointed as War Minister by President Ramon Castillo, and began to reorganize the Argentine Army. At the same time, the Guardia Nacional joined with another party to form "Recuperacion Nacional", a fascist political party. Castillo fired Ramirez following a cabinet meeting on May 18, 1943. Two weeks later, on June 4, 1943, Ramirez assisted Arturo Rawson in overthrowing Castillo's government, and was again made Minister of War. Three days later, on June 7 Ramirez forced Rawson's resignation and maintained Argentina's neutrality during World War Two. Ramirez refused to sever relations with the Axis powers and, consequently, the United States refused requests for Lend-Lease aid. Ramirez finally broke diplomatic relations with Germany and Japan on January 26, 1944. A month later, on February 24, 1944, Ramirez resigned in favor of his vice-president, Edelmiro Farrell.
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