Jujuy is a province of Argentina, located in the extreme northwest of the country, at the borders with Chile and Bolivia. The only neighboring Argentine province is Salta to the east and south.
Pre-Columbian inhabitants, that would later mix with the Incas during their expansion period, practiced agriculture and domesticated the guanaco. They had huts made of mud, and erected stone fortresses to protect their villages. An example of such fortresses is Pucara de Tilcara, Pucara meaning "Fortress" (word also used for the Argentine combat aircraft Pucara).
In 1593 a small settlement is erected in the Jujuy valley by the effort of Francisco de Arganaraz y Murguia. In spite of the attacks of the calchaquies and omaguacas aborigines, the population and activity of the village consolidated and grew.
At the end of the 17th century, the customs to the Viceroyalty of Peru is transferred from Cordoba to Jujuy.
With the separation from Peru and the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata, Jujuy loses its importance and its population starts diminishing.
During the May Revolution and the battles for the independence of the United provinces of the South, many confrontations took place in Jujuy because the Spanish forces concentrated their forces in Peru. The people of Jujuy had to endure the Jujuy Exodus, a massive evacuation with a scorched earth policy, led by General Manuel Belgrano. Finally the Spanish surrendered, but the war seriously affected the economy of the area.
After a series of internal conflicts, the province, now separated from Tucuman and Salta, started a gradual economic and social improvement, and at the end of the 19th century sugarcane industry arose. At the beginning of the following century, the railway already connected the province with Buenos Aires, and La Paz, Bolivia.
Industry was impelled first in the 1940s with the construction of the first metal-production furnace in the country, and then in 1969 with the discovering of petroleum by the state-owned YPF.
Geography and climate
There are 3 main areas in Jujuy; the Altiplano, a 3,500 meters high plateau with peaks of 5,000 meters, covers most of the province. The Grande River of Jujuy cuts through the Quebrada de Humahuaca canyon, of heights between 1,000 and 3,500 meters. To the Southeast, the sierras descends to the Gran Chaco region.
The vast difference in height and climate produces desert areas such as the Salinas Grandes salt mines, and subtropical Yungas jungle.
In spite of the different areas, the terrain of the province is mainly arid and semi-desertic, except for the El Ramal valley of the San Francisco River. Temperature difference between day and night is wider in higher lands, and precipitations are scarce outside the temperate area of the San Francisco River.
The Grande River and the San Francisco River are fed by the Bermejo River. The San Juan, La Quiaca, Yavi and Sansana are fed by the Pilcomayo River.
The main agricultural activity is sugarcane, and its later industrialization represents more than half of the province's gross production, and 30% of the national sugar production. The second agricultural activity is the tobacco, cultivated in the Southeaster valley, as a major national producer. Other crops include beans, citrus and tomatoes, and other vegetables for local consumption.
Jujuy is the second producer of iron, used by Altos Hornos Zapla furnace to make steel. Other industrial activities include mining for construction material, petroleum extraction at Caimancito, salt production from Salinas Grandes salt basin, and the paper production feed by the Jujuy's forests with 20% of the industrial product of the province.
Cattle and goats for milk and wool are a minor activity, as well as llamas, vicunas and guanacos.
An important and still growing activity, tourism in the area brings a number of Argentine tourists (80%), tourists from other South American countries (12%) and Europeans (7%). Most tourists head for San Salvador de Jujuy to start their exploration of the province. The Horacio Guzman international airport, 34 km from San Salvador, connects the province with Buenos Aires, Cordoba, and some destinations in Bolivia.
Apart from the fantastic contrast of land colours and formations, tourists are attracted also by the strong aboriginal roots in the culture of Jujuy. Aymara and Quechua cultures coexist in the area, and ruins of the Incas are well conserved.
Tourists who come to Jujuy visit the area of the Quebrada de Humahuaca and its Cerro de los Siete Colores, Pucara de Tilcara, Salinas Grandes and many small towns. Other less frequent destinations include the Calilegua National Park in the Yungas jungle, La Quiaca, Laguna de Pozuelos, and Laguna Guayatayoc.
The province is divided into 16 departments .
Cochinoca (Abra Pampa)
El Carmen (El Carmen)
Doctor Manuel Belgrano (San Salvador de Jujuy)
Ledesma (Libertador General San Martin)
San Pedro (San Pedro)
Santa Barbara (Palma Sola)
Santa Catalina (Santa Catalina)
Valle Grande (Valle Grande)
Yavi (La Quiaca)
Filmed in Jujuy Province
Veronico Cruz, (1988).
1863 Jujuy earthquake
Official site (Spanish)
Images from Humahuaca, Jujuy
North of Argentina Tourist info
Pictures of Jujuy
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Jujuy Province